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Version History Last revision date for this specific page: 28 January 2015
Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.
|LINKS: Main Page Y-DNA Tree Trunk SNP Index Papers/Presentations Cited Glossary Listing Criteria|
|CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS: Added Redefined|
|SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2014 tree Confirmed within subclade Provisional Private Investigation|
The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.
SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.
Contact Person for Haplogroup A: Bonnie Schrack
Y Root (Y-Adam)
• A00 AF6/L1284, AF4, AF5, AF7, AF8, AF9, AF10, AF13, L1086, L1087, L1088, L1091, L1092, L1094, L1096, L1097, L1102, L1103, L1104, L1106, L1107, L1108, L1109, L1110, L1111, L1113, L1114, L1115, L1117, L1119, L1122, L1126, L1131, L1133, L1134, L1138, L1139, L1140, L1141, L1144, L1146, L1147, L1148, L1151, L1152, L1154, L1156, L1157, L1158, L1159, L1160, L1161, L1163, L1233, L1234, L1236
• A0-T L1085, AF3, L1089, L1090, L1093, L1095, L1098, L1099, L1101, L1105, L1116, L1118, L1120, L1121, L1123, L1124, L1125, L1127, L1128, L1129, L1130, L1132, L1135, L1136, L1137, L1142, L1143, L1145, L1150, L1155, L1235
• • A0 CTS2809/L991, L529.2, L896, L982, L984, L990, L993, L995, L997, L998, L999, L1000, L1001, L1006, L1008, L1010, L1012, L1016, L1018, L1055, V148, V149, V154, V165, V176, V177, V190, V196, V223, V225, V229, V233, V239
• • • A0* -
• • • A0a L979, L980, L987, L996, L1011, L1015, L1017
• • • • A0a* -
• • • • A0a1 L1070, L1072, L1073, L1075, L1076, L1078, L1079, L1080, L1081, L1082, V150, V153, V157, V158, V159, V162, V164, V170
• • • • • A0a1* -
• • • • • A0a1a P114, V151, V152, V161.1, V169, V181, V195
• • • • • A0a1b L1289
• • • • A0a2 L981, L983, L988, L994, L1007, L1014, V203
• • • A0b L92.2, L1035, L1036, L1037, L1038, L1039, L1040, L1041, L1042, L1043, L1044, L1045, L1046, L1047, L1048, L1049, L1050, L1051, L1052, L1054, L1056, L1057, L1058
• • A1 L986, L989, L1002, L1003, L1004, L1005, L1084, L1112, L1153, P305, V161.2, V168, V171, V174, V238, V241, V250
• • • A1* -
• • • A1a M31, P82, V4, V14, V15, V25, V26, V28, V30, V40, V48, V57, V58, V63, V191, V201, V204, V215
• • • A1b P108, FGC8027, L989, L1009, L1013, L1053, M11301/Z11908, V221, Z11891, Z11892, Z11893, Z11894, Z11895, Z11896, Z11897, Z11898, Z11899, Z11900, Z11901, Z11902, Z11903, Z11904, Z11905, Z11906, Z11907, Z11909, Z11910, Z11911, Z11912, Z11913, Z11914, Z11915, Z11916, Z11917, Z11918, Z11919, Z17890, Z17891, Z17892, Z17893, Z17894, Z17895, Z17896, Z17897, Z17898, Z17899, Z17900
• • • • A1b* -
• • • • A1b1 L419/PF712
• • • • • A1b1* -
• • • • • A1b1a L602, V50, V82, V198, V224
• • • • • • A1b1a* -
• • • • • • A1b1a1 M14, M23, L968/M29/P3/PN3, M71, M135, M141, M206, M276/P247, M277/P248, MEH1, P4, P5, P36.1, Page71, Page87, Page95
• • • • • • • A1b1a1* -
• • • • • • • A1b1a1a M6, M49/Page41, M196
• • • • • • • • A1b1a1a* -
• • • • • • • • A1b1a1a1 P28
• • • • • • • • A1b1a1a2 L963
• • • • • • • • • A1b1a1a2* -
• • • • • • • • • A1b1a1a2a M114, M212
• • • • • • • • • A1b1a1a2b P262
• • • • • A1b1b M32
• • • • • • A1b1b* -
• • • • • • A1b1b1 M28
• • • • • • A1b1b2 L427, L430, M144, M190/Page35/PF1373, M220, M305/Page17, P289/PF1372, Page50, PF1365/V160
• • • • • • • A1b1b2* -
• • • • • • • A1b1b2a M51/Page42, M229, M239/Page89, P71, P100
• • • • • • • • A1b1b2a* -
• • • • • • • • A1b1b2a1 P291
• • • • • • • • • A1b1b2a1 -
• • • • • • • • • A1b1b2a1a P102
• • • • • • • A1b1b2b M13/PF1374, M63/PF1079, M127, M202, M219, Page53, Page77/PF1364/V10
• • • • • • • • A1b1b2b* -
• • • • • • • • A1b1b2b1 M118
• • • • BT M91, CTS5903/M9174/PF795/S1572, CTS7503/M9219, L413/PF1409/V31, L418, L438, L440, L604/PF1243, L962, L969, L1060/PF1021, L1061/PF1101, L1062/PF302, L1071/M8945, L1220/M9212, M42, M94/PF1081, M139, M251/M9122/PF699, M299, M8947, M8949, M8951, M8952, M8953/PF1405/V216, M8954, M8955/PF12, M8956, M8957, M8958/PF196, M8959, M8961/PF201, M8967, M8968/PF207, M8969/PF1407/V21, M8970/PF208, M8971, M8972, M8973, M8976/PF215, M8977, M8979/PF226, M8980/PF229, M8983/PF230, M8985/PF232, M8986, M8988, M8993, M8994, M8995, M8997/PF260, M8999, M9000, M9001, M9003, M9004/PF270, M9005, M9006, M9008, M9009, M9010, M9011, M9015, M9016, M9017/PF282, M9019/PF286, M9020/PF287, M9021/PF288, M9025, M9026, M9027, M9028/PF298, M9030, M9031, M9032/PF304, M9034, M9036/PF308, M9037, M9038/PF313, M9039, M9041/PF319, M9042, M9043, M9045, M9046/PF324, M9054, M9056, M9057, M9064/PF350, M9065/PF351, M9066, M9069/PF635, M9070, M9075, M9076, M9077, M9079, M9080, M9081, M9083, M9086/PF648, M9087, M9089/PF653, M9094/PF671, M9095, M9097/PF672, M9098, M9099/PF674, M9100, M9102, M9103/PF679, M9105, M9109, M9110/PF684, M9111, M9112, M9113, M9114, M9115, M9116/PF688, M9117, M9118/Page81, M9121, M9123, M9124/PF701, M9125, M9126/PF703, M9127, M9128, M9129/PF707, M9130/PF708, M9131, M9133/PF715, M9135, M9136/PF724, M9138, M9139, M9140, M9141, M9142/PF731, M9143/PF732, M9145/PF733, M9146, M9148/PF744, M9151, M9152, M9155/PF762, M9156/PF764, M9157/PF766, M9159/PF767, M9160/Page24, M9162, M9163/PF777, M9165, M9166/PF785, M9169, M9172, M9173/PF794, M9176, M9177, M9178, M9179, M9180, M9182, M9187, M9188, M9189, M9192, M9193, M9194.3/PF825.3, M9195, M9196, M9197, M9198, M9199/PF834, M9200/PF835, M9202, M9203/PF837, M9204, M9209, M9210, M9213, M9214, M9215/PF847, M9216, M9217/PF857, M9218/PF860, M9220, M9221, M9223/PF865, M9225/PF868, M9226/PF869, M9227, M9228, M9230/PF870, M9231/PF876, M9234, M9235/PF886, M9237/PF890, M9238, M9239, M9240/PF896, M9242/PF899, M9244, M9245, M9246, M9248, M9249, M9251/PF913, M9252, M9253/PF914, M9254, M9255/PF925, M9257, M9258, M9260, M9261/PF931, M9262/PF932, M9263, M9265, M9266/PF946, M9267/PF948, M9269, M9271, M9277, M9278/PF969, M9280, M9282, M9283/PF973, M9284, M9285, M9286, M9287, M9288/PF985, M9289/PF988, M9290/PF989, M9291, M9292, M9293/PF997, M9295/PF1000, M9296, M9298/Z12093, M9300, M9301/PF1015, M9302, M9303, M9306, M9310, M9311/PF1030, M9312, M9314, M9315/PF1033, M9316/PF1034, M9317, M9318, M9319, M9321/PF1045, M9322/PF1049, M9323/PF1050, M9325, M9326, M9327, M9328/PF1053, M9331/PF1057, M9334, M9335/PF1060, M9336/Page26, M9338/PF1064, M9340, M9341/PF1072, M9343, M9344, M9346, M9347, M9348/PF1093, M9349, M9352/PF1100, M9353, M9356, M9357/PF1209, M9359, M9360, M9361, M9362, M9365/PF1218, M9366, M9367, M9368, M9369, M9370, M9372, M9373, M9374/Z4690, M9376, M9377/PF1421, M9378, M9379/PF1253, M9380/PF1256, M9382/PF1257, M9387, M9389, M9390/PF1262, M9393, M9394/PF1271, M9396, M9397, M9398/PF1279, M9399/PF1283, M9405, M9406, M9408/PF1296, M9410, M9411/PF1315, M9412, M9417, M9420, M9421, M9425, M11752, M11753/PF243, M11754, M11755/PF280, M11756/PF301, M11757/PF327, M11759, M11760, M11762, M11767, M11773/PF809, M11779/PF1027, M11780/PF1044, M11781, M11787/PF1311, M11789/PF1332, P97, Page65.1/SRY1532.1/SRY10831.1, PF16, PF20, PF28, PF51, PF69, PF72, PF73, PF79, PF122, PF127, PF133, PF135, PF149, PF161, PF162, PF167, PF175, PF177, PF236, PF338, PF420, PF462, PF468, PF509, PF585, PF591, PF592, PF601, PF620, PF622, PF626, PF627, PF632, PF713, PF918, PF1026, PF1042, PF1096, PF1143, PF1178, PF1184, PF1196, PF1201, PF1247, PF1248, PF1249, PF1252, PF1274, PF1318, PF1325, V29/PF1408, V59/PF1411, V64/PF1412, V102/PF1406, V187/PF1403, V202/PF1404, V235/PF1410, Z11924, Z11926, Z11927, Z11929, Z11930, Z11931, Z11932, Z11933, Z11937, Z11938, Z11939, Z11940, Z11941, Z11943, Z11945, Z11948, Z11970, Z11971, Z11978, Z11979, Z11980, Z11981, Z11983, Z11984, Z11985, Z11986, Z11987, Z11988, Z11989, Z11990, Z11991, Z11993, Z11997, Z11999, Z12001, Z12002, Z12003, Z12004, Z12005, Z12006, Z12007, Z12008, Z12031, Z12047, Z12070, Z12071, Z12077, Z12094, Z12095, Z12096, Z12110, Z12111, Z12128, Z12129, Z12138, Z12139, Z17332, Z17333, Z17334, Z17335, Z17336, Z17337, Z17338, Z17339, Z17340, Z17341, Z17342, Z17343, Z17344, Z17345, Z17346, Z17347, Z17348, Z17349, Z17350, Z17351, Z17352, Z17353, Z17354, Z17355, Z17356, Z17357, Z17358, Z17359, Z17360, Z17361, Z17362, Z17363, Z17364, Z17365, Z17366, Z17367, Z17368, Z17369, Z17370, Z17371, Z17372, Z17373, Z17374, Z17375, Z17376, Z17377, Z17378, Z17379, Z17380, Z17381, Z17382, Z17383, Z17384, Z17385, Z17386, Z17387, Z17388, Z17389, Z17390
Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.
SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.
Y-DNA haplogroup A contains lineages deriving from the earliest branching in the human Y chromosome tree. The oldest branching event, separating A0-P305 and A1-V161, is thought to have occurred about 140,000 years ago. Haplogroups A0-P305, A1a-M31 and A1b1a-M14 are restricted to Africa and A1b1b-M32 is nearly restricted to Africa. The haplogroup that would be named A1b2 is composed of haplogroups B through T. The internal branching of haplogroup A1-V161 into A1a-M31, A1b1, and BT (A1b2) may have occurred about 110,000 years ago. A0-P305 is found at low frequency in Central and West Africa. A1a-M31 is observed in northwestern Africans; A1b1a-M14 is seen among click language-speaking Khoisan populations. A1b1b-M32 has a wide distribution including Khoisan speaking and East African populations, and scattered members on the Arabian Peninsula.
Batini et al,
Signatures of the Preagricultural Peopling Processes in Sub-Saharan Africa as Revealed by the Phylogeography of
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Behar et al, Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People. Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Cruciani et al, A Revised Root for the Human Y Chromosomal Phylogenetic Tree--The Origin of Patrilineal Diversity in Africa. The American Journal of Human Genetics, doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.05.002, 2011.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Francalacci et al, Low-Pass DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. Science: Vol. 341 no. 6145, pp. 565-569, DOI: 10.1126/science.1237947, 2 August 2013.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Mendez et al, An African American Paternal Lineage Adds an Extremely Ancient Root to the Human Y Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree. (abstract) American Journal of Human Genetics 28 February 2013.
Mohyuddin et al, Detection of Novel Y SNPs Provides Further Insights into Y Chromosomal Variation in Pakistan. Journal of Human Genetics, 2006.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Schuster et al, Complete Khoisan and Bantu Genomes from Southern Africa. (abstract) Nature 463, 943-947, 18 February 2010.
Scozzari et al, An Unbiased Resource of Novel SNP Markers Provides a New Chronology for the Human Y Chromosome and Reveals a Deep Phylogenetic Structure in Africa, Genome Research, Vol. doi:10.1101/gr.160788.113, 2014.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Valone et al, Y SNP Typing of African-American and Caucasian Samples Using Allele-Specific Hybridization and Primer Extension. (pdf) Journal of Forensic Science, 49:4, July 2004.
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
Y Haplogroup A, Bonnie Schrack.
The African DNA Project (A), Dr. Ana Oquendo Pabon.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2015:
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