Y-DNA Haplogroup A and its Subclades - 2017

The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the Main Page. Directions for citing the document are given at the bottom of the Main Page.

Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 1 January 2017

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Ray Banks if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk    SNP Index    Papers/Presentations Cited    Glossary   Listing Criteria
FONT COLORS:  Newly confirmed in 2017 within subclade  Confirmed within subclade  Investigational items

^ Indicates a next-generation sequencing entry which does not yet meet quality guidelines for minimum number of reads.
^^ Indicates an entry which does not meet quality guidelines but may be helpful.
~ Indicates only an approximate location on the tree.

The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.

SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.

Contact Person for Haplogroup A: Bonnie Schrack

Link to Experimental Composite Y-DNA Haplogroup A Tree by Ray Banks.

Y   Root (Y-Adam)
A00   AF6/L1284, A1426/A2942/FGC33403, A2515/V1078, A2517, A2593/YP2465, A2595, A2596, A2597/YP2478, A2598/YP2480, A2604, A2605/YP2495, A2607/YP2513, A2608/YP2514, A2609, A2610/YP2516, A2615, A2618/YP2538, A2619, A2620/YP2544, A2625/YP2547, A2628/V1223/YP2563, A2630/V1305, A2631/V1306, A2632/YP2584, A2633/YP2585, A2634/YP2586, A2635/YP2587, A2637, A2639/V1593/YP2617, A2643/YP2646, A2644, A2647/YP2655, A2648/YP2656, A2649/V2103/YP2687, A2650/V2105/YP2688, A2651.2/V2236.2, A2652/V2237/YP2706, A2657/V2413, A2658/YP2726, A2664/YP2746, A2666/YP2777, A2667/YP2779, A2671/FGC31579, A2672/YP2800, A2675, A2676/YP2808, A2677, A2680, A2681, A2684, A2685, A2686, A2687, A2692, A2725/YP2833, A2728/YP2844, A2730, A2731, A2732/YP2851, A2733, A2737, A2738, A2739/YP2869, A2740/YP2874, A2741/YP2876, A2746/YP2882, A2747/YP2886, A2748, A2753/YP2893, A2759, A2760/V2662/YP2933, A2762/YP2957, A2763/V2857/YP2961, A2764/V2858/YP2962, A2768/YP2966, A2769/V2905, A2770/YP2981, A2771, A2772/YP2982, A2773, A2774, A2776/YP2984, A2777, A2778/YP2997, A2782/V3198/YP3024, A2783/V3199/YP3025, A2787/V3261, A2790, A2792/YP3069, A2796, A2799, A2802/YP3129, A2803, A2804/YP3149, A2805/YP3150, A2807/YP3154, A2808/YP3162, A2810/YP3178, A2811, A2812/YP3181, A2813/ZS3699, A2814/YP3185, A2815/YP3186, A2816, A2817/YP3187, A2818/YP3189, A2820, A2822/YP3198, A2824/YP3202, A2825/YP3210, A2826, Z2827, Z2828, A2829/YP3236, A2831/YP3262, A2833, A2834/BZ895, A2835/YP3277, A2837, A2838/YP3282, A2845, A2847/YP3310, A2848/YP3319, A2849/V3340/YP3323, A2850, A2851, A2853/V3556/YP3346, A2854/V3557/YP3347, A2856, A2857/YP3355, A2858/V3637/YP3356, A2860/YP3364, A2861, A2862/YP3371, A2863/YP3378, A2864/V3748/YP3380, A2865/V3749/YP3381, A2867/V3755/YP3382, A2869, A2871/V3925/YP3398, A2872/YP3400, A2874/YP3408, A2875/YP3409, A2877/YP3414, A2880/V4039, A2881/YP3424, A2885, A2886/YP3443, A2887/YP3444, A2892, A2893, A2907/YP3465, A2908/YP3467, A2910, A2911/YP3480, A2912/YP3481, A2913/YP3494, A2914, A2916/YP3508, A2917, A2918, A2919/YP3522, A2920, A2923/YP3542, A2924/YP3543, A2925/YP3548, A2926, A2927/YP3550, A2929/YP3551, A2930/YP3552, A2931/YP3553, A2933, A2938, A2945/YP3614, A2946, A2947, A2948/YP3615, A2951, A2953/YP3638, A2954/YP3639, A2955/YP3645, A2956/YP3649, A2957/YP3650, A2958, A2960, Z2962, A2964/YP3673, A2967, A2974/YP3706, A2975/YP3713, A2976/YP3714, A2977, A2978, A2982/YP3732, A2983/YP3736, A2988/YP3768, A2993/YP3784, A3024/YP3809, A3025/YP3810, A3027/YP3823, A3028, A3147/L1234/YP2262, A3149/YP2270, A3260/PH119/YP2464, A3262/YP2479, A3275/YP2570, A3277/V1430/YP2583, A3279/V1606, A3280/V1781/YP2653, A3281/YP2681, A3283/YP2743, A3284/YP2767, A3297/YP2783, A3300, A3341, A3353, A3366/YP2835, A3370, A3372, A3376/Y12784, A3379, A3383/V2789/YP2945, A3388/V2880/YP2967, A3398/V3244, A3399, A3402/YP3050, A3403/Y17290, A3404, A3406/YP3054, A3409, A3410, A3411/YP3124, A3412, A3413/YP3130, A3416/YP3151, A3417, A3418/YP3192, A3420/YP3200, A3422/YP3207, A3426, A3439/V3507, A3441/V3629, A3445/YP3377, A3448, A3450/V3926/YP3399, A3453, A3478, A3480, A3489/YP3590, A3491, A3503/YP3730, A3641, A3723/V1655/YP2630, A4451/YP3724, A4834, A4848/YP2527, A4849, A4850, A4856, A4857, A4858, A4859, A4862, A4863/V2542/YP2909, A4864, A4865/YP3052, A4866/YP3919, A4867, A4868/YP3212, A4869, A4870/YP3289, A4877, A4897, A4898/YP3584, A4899, A4946, AF4, AF5, AF7, AF8, AF9, AF10, AF13, F12634/FGC27193/V3788, FGC11978/YP2539, FGC13215/YP1487, FGC24756, FGC24757/YP2263, FGC24758, FGC24759/V1028/YP2264, FGC24760/V1035, FGC24762/V1044/YP2265, FGC24765/YP2266, FCG24766/YP2267, FGC24768/YP2268, FGC24770/YP2269, FGC24771, FGC24773/YP2271, FGC24774/V1088/YP2272, FGC24776/V1096, FGC24778/YP2273, FGC24779/YP2274, FGC24780, FGC24782/V1126, FGC24783/V1134/YP2275, FGC24785/YP2276, FGC24786/YP2277, FGC24788/V1140, FGC24789/YP2279, FGC24790/YP2280, FGC24791, FGC24819/YP2287, FGC25316/YP2451, FGC25353/YP1740, FGC25354/YP2460, FGC25355/Y18338, FGC25357/YP2462, FGC25359, FGC25360/YP2467, FGC25362/YP2468, FGC25363/YP2469, FGC25365/YP2470, FGC25367/YP2471, FGC25368/YP2472, FGC25369, FGC25370, FGC25371/YP2473, FGC25372/YP2474, FGC25373, FGC25374/YP2475, FGC25375/YP2476, FGC25377/YP2477, FGC25380, FGC25382, FGC25383/YP2481, FGC25384, FGC25385, FGC25386/YP2482, FGC25387/YP2483, FGC25388/YP2484, FGC25390/YP2486, FGC25393, FGC25395/YP2489, FGC25396/YP2490, FGC25397/YP2491, FGC25398, FGC25399/YP2492, FGC25400/YP2493, FGC25402/YP2494, FGC25404/YP2496, FGC25405/YP2497, FGC25406, FGC25407, FGC25409/YP2498, FGC25410/YP2499, FGC25412/YP2500, FGC25413/YP2501, FGC25414/YP2502, FGC25415/YP2503, FGC25417/YP2505, FGC25419, FGC25421/YP2506, FGC25422/YP2507, FGC25423/YP2508, FGC25424/YP2509, FGC25425/YP2510, FGC25426, FGC25427/YP2511, FGC25428, FGC25432, FGC25433/YP2515, FGC25434, FGC25436, FGC25437/YP2517, FGC25438/YP2518, FGC25439/YP2519, FGC25441/YP2520, FGC25443, FGC25444/YP2521, FGC25445/YP2522, FGC25446/YP2523, FGC25447/YP2524, FGC25448, FGC25451, FGC25453, FGC25455, FGC25456/YP2525, FGC25459, FGC25461/YP2528, FGC25463/YP2529, FGC25466/YP2530, FGC25468, FGC25469, FGC25474/YP2533, FGC25475/YP2534, FGC25477/YP2536, FGC25478/YP2537, FGC25480, FGC25481, FGC25483/YP2540, FGC25484, FGC25485/YP2541, FGC25486, FGC25487/YP2542, FGC25489/YP2543, FGC25492, FGC25494, FGC25495/YP2545, FGC25496/YP2546, FGC25498/YP2548, FGC25508/YP2551, FGC25509/YP2552, FGC25510/YP2553, FGC25514/V1189/YP2556, FGC25517/YP2557, FGC25518/YP2558, FGC25526, FGC25527, FGC25528/V1279/YP2565, FGC25531/YP2566, FGC25534/V1301/YP2567, FGC25535/V1309/YP2568, FGC25537/YP2569, FGC25538, FGC25539/V1346, FGC25540/YP2571, FGC25542/YP2572, FGC25545, FGC25548/YP2575, FGC25549/YP2576, FGC25551, FGC25552/YP2577, FGC25554/YP2578, FGC25555/YP2579, FGC25558/YP2581, FGC25560, FGC25561/V1426/YP2582, FGC25564/V1436/YP2588, FGC25565, FGC25567/YP2589, FGC25568/YP2590, FGC25569, FGC25570/V1466/YP2591, FGC25572/YP2592, FGC25573/YP2593, FGC25575/V1483/YP2594, FGC25577/YP2595, FGC25579/YP2596, FGC25580/V1496/YP2597, FGC25581/YP2598, FGC25582/YP2599, FGC25584/V1510/YP2600, FGC25585/YP2601, FGC25586/V1512, FGC25587, FGC25589/V1513/YP2602, FGC25591/YP2603, FGC25592/V1523/YP2604, FGC25595, FGC25597/V1538/YP2606, FGC25599/YP2608, FGC25603/YP2609, FGC25605/YP2611, FGC25606, FGC25617/YP2613, FGC25618/V1567/YP2614, FGC25619/YP2615, FGC25621/YP2616, FGC25626, FGC25634/V1609/YP2621, FGC25638/V1616/YP2624, FGC25639/V1621/YP2625, FGC25642/V1624/YP2627, FGC25643/V1633/YP2628, FGC25648/YP1807, FGC25649/V1662/YP2631, FGC25652/YP2635, FGC25654/YP2637, FGC25657/YP2638, FGC25658, FGC25661/YP2639, FGC25662/YP2640, FGC25668/YP2645, FGC25669, FGC25670/YP2647, FGC25672/V1724/YP2648, FGC25673/V1748/YP2649, FGC25679, FGC25680/V1804/YP2657, FGC25681/YP2658, FGC25685/YP2661, FGC25686/YP2662, FGC25687/YP2663, FGC25691/V1823/YP2665, FGC25693/YP2666, FGC25694/YP2667, FGC25697/V1834/YP2668, FGC25698/YP2669, FGC25701/V1850/YP2672, FGC25702/V1859, FGC25703/V1875/YP2673, FGC25711/V1968, FGC25714/V1985/YP2678, FGC25715/V1987/YP2679, FGC25716/V1995/YP2680, FGC25726/V2095/YP2686, FGC25745/YP2700, FGC25747/V2192/YP2701, FGC25750/V2222/YP2704, FGC25755/V2243/YP2708, FGC25757/V2262/YP2709, FGC25765/YP2717, FGC25766/V2339/YP2718, FGC25768, FGC25769/V2369/YP2719, FGC25772/V2414/YP2721, FGC25773/V2421/YP2722, FGC25776/V2442/YP2724, FGC25782/V2456/YP2729, FGC25783/V2461/YP1838, FGC25786/V2476/YP2730, FGC25787/YP2731, FGC25788/YP1841, FGC25790/YP2733, FGC25798/YP2734, FGC25801/YP2736, FGC25805/YP2737, FGC25808, FGC25809/YP2739, FGC25810/YP2740, FGC25811/YP2741, FGC25820/YP2745, FGC25821, FGC25822/YP2747, FGC25827/YP2752, FGC25831, FGC25850/YP2766, FGC25851/YP2768, FGC25852/YP2769, FGC25861, FGC25862/YP2774, FGC25870, FGC25871/YP2775, FGC25873/YP2776, FGC25875/YP2778, FGC25876/YP2781, FGC25879/YP2782, FGC25880, FGC25882, FGC25883/YP2784, FGC25907, FGC25910, FGC25912/YP2793, FGC25913, FGC25922/YP2799, FGC25923, FGC25924, FGC25925/YP2801, FGC25927/YP2802, FGC25928, FGC25935/YP2806, FGC25936/YP2807, FGC25937, FGC25940/YP2809, FGC25941, FGC25942, FGC25948, FGC25958, FGC25959, FGC25964, FGC25965, FGC25966, FGC25969, FGC25971, FGC25972, FGC25993, FGC25994, FGC25998, FGC26004, FGC26006, FGC26008, FGC26009, FGC26012, FGC26084, FGC26102, FGC26103, FGC26148, FGC26178/YP2827, FGC26181, FGC26183/YP2829, FGC26184/YP2830, FGC26185/YP2831, FGC26186/YP2832, FGC26189/Z23518, FGC26190, FGC26191/YP2834, FGC26193, FGC26195/YP2837, FGC26196, FGC26199/YP2838, FGC26200/YP2839, FGC26202/YP2841, FGC26203, FGC26207/YP2842, FGC26209/YP2843, FGC26214, FGC26215, FGC26217, FGC26218/YP2845, FGC26219/YP2846, FGC26220, FGC26222, FGC26225, FGC26228/YP2849, FGC26229/YP2850, FGC26230/YP2852, FGC26231, FGC26232/YP2853, FGC26233, FGC26234/YP2854, FGC26236, FGC26239/YP2857, FGC26240/YP2858, FGC26241/YP2859, FGC26242/YP2860, FGC26243/YP2861, FGC26244/YP2862, FGC26247, FGC26248/YP2864, FGC26249/YP2865, FGC26250/YP2866, FGC26256, FGC26259, FGC26260/YP2868, FGC26261/YP2870, FGC26262/YP2871, FGC26263/YP2872, FGC26265/YP2873, FGC26268/YP2877, FGC26269, FGC26272, FGC26275/YP2880, FGC26278/YP2881, FGC26281, FGC26282/YP2883, FGC26283/YP2884, FGC26284, FGC26286/YP2888, FGC26288/YP2889, FGC26288/YP2889, FGC26290, FGC26291/YP2890, FGC26294/YP2891, FGC26295/YP2892, FGC26296, FGC26305, FGC26307, FGC26308/YP2897, FGC26315/YP2901, FGC26316, FGC26319/YP2902, FGC26320/YP2903, FGC26321, FGC26322, FGC26324, FGC26326/YP2905, FGC26327/YP2906, FGC26328, FGC26331, FGC26332/V2516, FGC26333/YP2908, FGC26334/V2531, FGC26335/V2548/YP2910, FGC26336/YP2911, FGC26337/YP2912, FGC26340/YP2913, FGC26342/YP2914, FGC26344/V2559/YP2915, FGC26346/YP2917, FGC26347/YP2918, FGC26348, FGC26349/YP2919, FGC26350, FGC26351, FGC26352/YP2920, FGC26353/V2564/YP2921, FGC26354/YP2922, FGC26355/YP2923, FGC26357, FGC26358/YP2924, FGC26359, FGC26360/YP2925, FGC26361/YP2926, FGC26363/V2621/YP2927, FGC26365/V2624/YP2928, FGC26366/YP2929, FGC26367/V2627/YP2930, FGC26371/YP2932, FGC26372/V2655, FGC26376, FGC26377/V2686/YP2934, FGC26378/V2689/YP2935, FGC26379, FGC26380, FGC26381/V2698, FGC26382/YP2936, FGC26384/V2726/YP2937, FGC26385/V2735, FGC26386/YP2938, FGC26387/YP2939, FGC26388/YP2940, FGC26391/YP2941, FGC26392/YP2942, FGC26393, FGC26395/YP2943, FGC26396/V2781/YP2944, FGC26397, FGC26398/V2792, FGC26399, FGC26400/YP2946, FGC26401, FGC26402/V2808/YP2947, FGC26403/YP2948, FGC26404/YP2949, FGC26408, FGC26409/YP2950, FGC26412/YP2951, FGC26415/YP2953, FGC26416, FGC26418/YP2954, FGC26420/YP2955, FGC26421/YP2956, FGC26422, FGC26424/YP2958, FGC26425, FGC26426/YP2959, FGC26427, FGC26429, FGC26430/YP2960, FGC26440/V2863/YP2963, FGC26441, FGC26442, FGC26444/YP2964, FGC26446, FGC26447/YP2965, FGC26448, FGC26450/V2888/YP2968, FGC26451/YP2969, FGC26452/V2891/YP2970, FGC26454/V2899/YP2971, FGC26456/V2913/YP2972, FGC26457/YP2973, FGC26458/YP2974, FGC26459/V2922/YP2975/Z21469, FGC26460/YP2976, FGC26461/YP2977, FGC26463/YP2978, FGC26464, FGC26465/YP2979, FGC26466/YP2980, FGC26468/V2956/YP2983, FGC26469, FGC26473/YP2985, FGC26474/YP2986, FGC26475/V2978/YP2987, FGC26477/V2996/YP2988, FGC26479/V3016/YP2989, FGC26481/YP2990, FGC26482/YP2991, FGC26483/YP2992, FGC26486/YP2993, FGC26488/YP2994, FGC26489/V3049, FGC26491/YP2996, FGC26494, FGC26500/YP2999, FGC26503/YP3000, FGC26505/YP3001, FGC26506/YP3002, FGC26508/V3098, FGC26509, FGC26510/YP3004, FGC26511/YP3005, FGC26512/YP3006, FGC26515/YP3007, FGC26516/YP3008, FGC26517/YP3009, FGC26518/V3103/YP3010, FGC26519/YP3011, FGC26520/V3109/VP3012, FGC26521, FGC26522/YP3013, FGC26523/YP3014, FGC26524, FGC26525/V3116/YP3015, FGC26526/V3128/YP3016, FGC26527/YP3017, FGC26533/YP3018, FGC26534/V3136, FGC26538/V3143, FGC26540, FGC26544, FGC26545/V3173/YP3020, FGC26546/V3174/YP3021, FGC26550, FGC26552/V3191/YP3023, FGC26553, FGC26554/V3204/YP3026, FGC26558/YP3029, FGC26562/V3215/YP3031, FGC26563/V3223/YP3032, FGC26564/V3228/YP3033, FGC26565, FGC26566/YP3034, FGC26567, FGC26568/YP3035, FGC26569/YP3036, FGC26571/YP3037, FGC26572, FGC26573/YP3038, FGC26574/YP3039, FGC26575/YP3040, FGC26576, FGC26582/YP3041, FGC26584/YP3042, FGC26595/YP3048, FGC26596, FGC26598/YP3049, FGC26599, FGC26600, FGC26605/YP3051, FGC26607/YP3053, FGC26608/YP3055, FGC26611/YP3056, FGC26612/YP3057, FGC26617/YP3058, FGC26618/YP3059, FGC26621/YP3060, FGC26622, FGC26623/YP3061, FGC26625/YP3062, FGC26626, FGC26628/YP3063, FGC26630/YP3064, FGC26631/YP3065, FGC26636/YP3066, FGC26640/YP3067, FGC26641/YP3068, FGC26642, FGC26644/YP3070, FGC26647/YP3072, FGC26649/YP3073, FGC26650, FGC26651/YP3074, FGC26652/YP3075, FGC26654/YP3076, FGC26657/YP3077, FGC26658, FGC26659/YP3078, FGC26661/YP3079, FGC26662/YP3080, FGC26663, FGC26664/YP3081, FGC26665/YP3082, FGC26666, FGC26667/YP3083, FGC26668/YP3084, FGC26669/YP3085, FGC26671/YP3086, FGC26672, FGC26673/YP3087, FGC26676/YP3088, FGC26677/YP3089, FGC26678/YP3090, FGC26679/YP3091, FGC26680/YP3092, FGC26681, FGC26684/YP3093, FGC26685, FGC26686, FGC26687/YP3094, FGC26689, FGC26690/YP3095, FGC26691/YP3096, FGC26692/YP3097, FGC26693/YP3098, FGC26694/YP3099, FGC26695/YP3100, FGC26696/YP3101, FGC26702, FGC26703/YP3102, FGC26704, FGC26705, FGC26706, FGC26707, FGC26708, FGC26709/YP3103, FGC26710, FGC26711/YP3104, FGC26713/YP3105, FGC26714/YP3106, FGC26716/YP3107, FGC26719/YP3108, FGC26720/YP3109, FGC26721/YP3110, FGC26722/YP3111, FGC26724/YP3112, FGC26725, FGC26726/YP3113, FGC26727/YP3114, FGC26728/YP3115, FGC26729/YP3116, FGC26736/YP3120, FGC26739/YP3121, FGC26742, FGC26743/YP3122, FGC26744/YP3123, FGC26746, FGC26747/YP3125, FGC26749/YP3127, FGC26750/YP3128, FGC26751/YP3131, FGC26752/YP3132, FGC26753/YP3133, FGC26754/YP3134, FGC26755/YP3135, FGC26756/YP3136, FGC26758/YP3138, FGC26759/YP3139, FGC26761/YP3140, FGC26763/YP3141, FGC26764/YP3142, FGC26765, FGC26767/YP3143, FGC26768/YP3144, FGC26769/YP3145, FGC26770/YP3146, FGC26771/YP3147, FGC26772/YP3148, FGC26773, FGC26776, FGC26777, FGC26782/YP3152, FGC26788/YP3153, FGC26790, FGC26793/YP3156, FGC26794/YP3157, FGC26796/YP3158, FGC26797/YP3159, FGC26798/YP3160, FGC26799/YP3161, FGC26800/YP3164, FGC26801/YP3165, FGC26802/YP3166, FGC26803/YP3167, FGC26804/YP3168, FGC26805/YP3169, FGC26806/YP3170, FGC26807/YP3171, FGC26809/YP3172, FGC26810/YP3173, FGC26811/YP3174, FGC26813/YP3175, FGC26815, FGC26816/YP3176, FGC26819/YP3177, FGC26820, FGC26821/YP3179, FGC26822/YP3180, FGC26823/YP3182, FGC26824/YP3183, FGC26825/YP3184, FGC26828/YP3188, FGC26831/YP3190, FGC26834/YP3191, FGC26836/YP3193, FGC26837, FGC26839/YP3194, FGC26840/YP3195, FGC26842/YP3196, FGC26844, FGC26846/YP3199, FGC26851, FGC26853, FGC26855, FGC26856, FGC26857/YP3201, FGC26858, FGC26859, FGC26860/YP3203, FGC26862/YP3204, FGC26863, FGC26864/YP3205, FGC26865/YP3206, FGC26866, FGC26869/YP3208, FGC26870/YP3209, FGC26872/YP3211, FGC26873, FGC26874/YP3213, FGC26875, FGC26876/YP3214, FGC26877/YP3215, FGC26878/YP3216, FGC26879/YP3217, FGC26880, FGC26881/YP3218, FGC26883/YP3219, FGC26884, FGC26890/YP3220, FGC26899, FGC26901, FGC26902, FGC26903, FGC26904/YP3223, FGC26906/YP3224, FGC26907/YP3225, FGC26909, FGC26910/YP3226, FGC26912/YP3227, FGC26913/YP3228, FGC26914, FGC26915/YP3229, FGC26916/YP3230, FGC26919, FGC26920, FGC26922/YP3232, FGC26923/YP3233, FGC26924, FGC26926, FGC26927/YP3234, FGC26929/YP3235, FGC26931/YP3238, FGC26932/YP3239, FGC26933/YP3240, FGC26934/YP3241, FGC26937/YP3243, FGC26938/YP3244, FGC26940/YP3245, FGC26941, FGC26944, FGC26945/YP3246, FGC26946/YP3247, FGC26960, FGC26965/YP3255, FGC26967/YP3256, FGC26970/YP3257, FGC26972/YP3258, FGC26973/YP3259, FGC26975, FGC26981, FGC26983/YP3261, FGC26985, FGC26988/YP3265, FGC26989/YP3266, FGC26990/YP3267, FGC26991/YP3268, FGC26992/YP3269, FGC26993, FGC26994/YP3270, FGC26995, FGC26996/YP3271, FGC26997/YP3272, FGC26998/YP3273, FGC26999/YP3274, FGC27000/YP3275, FGC27002/YP3276, FGC27008/YP3278, FGC27009/YP3279, FGC27010/YP3280, FGC27011, FGC27012, FGC27014/YP3283, FGC27015/YP3284, FGC27016, FGC27019, FGC27020/YP3286, FGC27021/YP3287, FGC27022/YP3288, FGC27024/YP3290, FGC27026/YP3291, FGC27027/YP3293, FGC27028/YP3294, FGC27029, FGC27030, FGC27032/YP3295, FGC27033/YP3296, FGC27034/YP3297, FGC27036/YP3298, FGC27038, FGC27040, FGC27042, FGC27044, FGC27045/YP3299, FGC27048/YP3300, FGC27051/YP3302, FGC27052/YP3303, FGC27053/YP3304, FGC27054, FGC27055/YP3305, FGC27056/YP3306, FGC27057/YP3307, FGC27058/YP3308, FGC27061/YP3309, FGC27062, FGC27065, FGC27066/YP3311, FGC27068/YP3312, FGC27069, FGC27071/YP3313, FGC27072, FGC27073/V3291/YP3314, FGC27074/YP3315, FGC27075/V3294/YP3316, FGC27076/V3300/YP3317, FGC27078/YP3318, FGC27080/V3326/YP3321, FGC27082/V3336/YP3322, FGC27083/V3338, FGC27084/YP3324, FGC27085/YP3325, FGC27086, FGC27088/V3361, FGC27090/YP3326, FGC27091/V3366, FGC27092/V3372/YP3327, FGC27095, FGC27096/V3386/YP3328, FGC27097/V3397/YP3329, FGC27098/V3399, FGC27104/V3442/YP3332, FGC27105/V3444/YP3333, FGC27108/V3450, FGC27109/V3453/YP3334, FGC27111/YP3335, FGC27114/V3481/YP3336, FGC27117, FGC27119/YP3337, FGC27120, FGC27121/V3499/YP3338, FGC27122/V3501/YP3339, FGC27124, FGC27125/V3524/YP3340, FGC27126/V3527/YP3341, FGC27127/YP3342, FGC27128/V3539/YP3343, FGC27129/YP3344, FGC27130/V3550/YP3345, FGC27131/YP3348, FGC27132, FGC27133, FGC27135/YP3350, FGC27137/V3583, FGC27138/V3585/YP3351, FGC27139, FGC27140/YP3352, FGC27142/YP3353, FGC27143, FGC27144/YP3354, FGC27147/YP3357, FGC27148/YP3358, FGC27151, FGC27152/YP3359, FGC27154/V3659, FGC27156/YP3360, FGC27157/YP3361, FGC27158/V3684/YP3362, FGC27159/V3687/YP3363, FGC27163/YP3366, FGC27165/YP3367, FGC27166/V3699/YP3368, FGC27167/V3700, FGC27168, FGC27169, FGC27170/YP3369, FGC27171, FGC27172/YP3370, FGC27173/YP3372, FGC27174, FGC27175, FGC27176, FGC27177/YP3373, FGC27178/YP3374, FGC27179/YP3375, FGC27180/YP3376/Z26760, FGC27183/V3744/YP3379, FGC27184/V3761, FGC27187/V3768/YP3383, FGC27188/YP3384, FGC27192, FGC27194/V3792/YP3385, FGC27195/YP3386, FGC27196/V3793, FGC27197, FGC27199/YP3387, FGC27202/YP3388, FGC27204/YP3389, FGC27205/V3828/YP3390, FGC27207/YP3391, FGC27208/V3845/YP3392, FGC27209/V3847/YP3393, FGC27210/V3859/YP3394, FGC27211/V3864, FGC27213/V3874, FGC27216/YP3395, FGC27219/V3910/YP3396, FGC27221/YP3397, FGC27222/V3924, FGC27223/YP3401, FGC27224/YP3402, FGC27225, FGC27226/YP3403, FGC27227/YP3404, FGC27229, FGC27230/V3947/YP3405, FGC27231/YP3406, FGC27232/V3962, FGC27235/YP3407, FGC27237/V3995/YP3410, FGC27238/YP3411, FGC27239, FGC27240/V3996/YP3412, FGC27241, FGC27242/V4011/YP3413, FGC27245/V4028/YP3416, FGC27246/YP3418, FGC27248/YP3419, FGC27251/V4050, FGC27252/V4055/YP3420, FGC27253/YP3421, FGC27256, FGC27259/V4080/YP3422, FGC27260/V4084/YP3423, FGC27263/V4103/YP3425, FGC27264/V4107/YP3426, FGC27265, FGC27267/YP3428, FGC27270/YP3429, FGC27271/V4121/YP3430, FGC27273/YP3431, FGC27274/YP3432, FGC27275, FGC27276/V4134/YP3433, FGC27277, FGC27278/YP3434, FGC27279/V4144, FGC27280/V4148/YP3435, FGC27282/V4152/YP3437, FGC27283/V4154/YP3438, FGC27284/YP3439, FGC27285/YP3440, FGC27286/V4160/YP3441, FGC27287/V4161/YP3442, FGC27288, FGC27289/V4171, FGC27291/V4179, FGC27292/V4188, FGC27294/V4204, FGC27297/V4214, FGC27298/YP2129, FGC27306/V4217/YP3449, FGC27309, FGC27312/YP3451, FGC27322/YP3456, FGC27323, FGC27325/YP3458, FGC27327/YP3460, FGC27328, FGC27333/YP3461, FGC27334/YP3462, FGC27335, FGC27336/YP3463, FGC27340/YP3464, FGC27341, FGC27342/YP3466, FGC27343, FGC27346/YP3468, FGC27347/YP3469, FGC27350/YP3470, FGC27351, FGC27352, FGC27353, FGC27354/YP3471, FGC27356, FGC27359, FGC27362/YP3473, FGC27363/YP3474, FGC27364/YP3475, FGC27365/YP3476, FGC27366, FGC27367/YP3477, FGC27368/YP3478, FGC27369, FGC27370/YP3479, FGC27373/YP3482, FGC27374/YP3483, FGC27379/YP3484, FGC27380/YP3485, FGC27383, FGC27384/YP3486, FGC27386/YP3487, FGC27387/YP3488, FGC27388/YP3489, FGC27389/YP3490, FGC27390/YP3491, FGC27391/YP3492, FGC27392, FGC27395/YP3493, FGC27396/YP3495, FGC27397, FGC27398, FGC27399/YP3496, FGC27400, FGC27405/YP3498, FGC27409/YP3499, FGC27411/YP3500, FGC27413/YP3501, FGC27414/YP3502, FGC27415/YP3503, FGC27416/YP3504, FGC27417/YP3505, FGC27418/YP3506, FGC27420/YP3507, FGC27421/YP3509, FGC27423, FGC27424/YP3511, FGC27425/YP3512, FGC27429/YP3516, FGC27430/YP3517, FGC27433/YP3519, FGC27435/YP3521, FGC27436/YP3523, FGC27437/YP3524, FGC27438, FGC27439/YP3525, FGC27440/YP3526, FGC27441/Y14320, FGC27442/YP3527, FGC27444/YP3528, FGC27445/YP3529, FGC27446/YP3530, FGC27447/YP3531, FGC27449/YP3532, FGC27467, FGC27468, FGC27470, FGC27471, FGC27472, FGC27474, FGC27478/YP3539, FGC27479/YP3540, FGC27480/YP3541, FGC27483/YP3544, FGC27484/YP3545, FGC27487, FGC27488, FGC27490, FGC27491/YP3546, FGC27492/YP3547, FGC27494, FGC27498, FGC27500/YP3549, FGC27503/YP3554, FGC27505, FGC27508/YP3556, FGC27509/YP3557, FGC27510/YP3558, FGC27511/YP3559, FGC27512/YP3560, FGC27513/YP3561, FGC27516, FGC27517/YP3562, FGC27520/YP3563, FGC27521/YP3564, FGC27522/YP3565, FGC27523/YP3566, FGC27524, FGC27526, FGC27529/YP3567, FGC27530, FGC27531/YP3568, FGC27532, FGC27533/YP3569, FGC27534/YP3570, FGC27535/YP3571, FGC27536/YP3572, FGC27545/YP3573, FGC27546, FGC27547/YP3574, FGC27548/YP3575, FGC27549, FGC27550/YP3576, FGC27551, FGC27552, FGC27553, FGC27554/YP3577, FGC27561/YP3580, FGC27562/YP3581, FGC27563/YP3582, FGC27564/YP3583, FGC27565, FGC27566, FGC27567, FGC27568/YP3585, FGC27569/YP3586, FGC27570/YP3587, FGC27571, FGC27572/YP3588, FGC27573/YP3589, FGC27577, FGC27580/YP3591, FGC27581, FGC27584, FGC27585, FGC27591/YP3593, FGC27592/YP3594, FGC27594, FGC27595/YP3595, FGC27596/YP3596, FGC27597/YP3597, FGC27598/YP3598, FGC27688/YP3605, FGC27689/Y3608, FGC27696/YP3608, FGC27697/YP3609, FGC27699/YP3610, FGC27700/YP3611, FGC27701/YP3612, FGC27702/YP3613, FGC27703, FGC27705/YP3616, FGC27707/YP3617, FGC27708, FGC27709/YP3618, FGC27711/YP3619, FGC27712/YP3620, FGC27713/YP3621, FGC27715, FGC27716, FGC27717/YP3622, FGC27719/YP3624, FGC27720, FGC27726, FGC27727/YP3627, FGC27729/YP3628, FGC27731/YP3629, FGC27732/YP3630, FGC27735/YP3631, FGC27737, FGC27739/YP3632, FGC27740, FGC27745/YP3634, FGC27746/YP3635, FGC27747/YP3636, FGC27748/YP3637, FGC27749/YP3640, FGC27750/YP3641, FGC27751/YP3642, FGC27754, FGC27755/YP3643, FGC27756, FGC27757/YP3644, FGC27758/YP3646, FGC27759/YP3647, FGC27760/YP3648, FGC27761, FGC27762, FGC27763, FGC27765, FGC27766/YP3651, FGC27767/YP3652, FGC27768/YP3653, FGC27770/YP3654, FGC27772/YP3655, FGC27775/YP3656, FGC27779/YP3659, FGC27780, FGC27781/YP3660, FGC27783/YP3661, FGC27786, FGC27787, FGC27789, FGC27790/YP3662, FGC27796/YP3664, FGC27797/YP3665, FGC27798/YP3667, FGC27799/YP3668, FGC27800/YP3669, FGC27801/YP3670, FGC27805/YP3672, FGC27806/YP3674, FGC27807/YP3675, FGC27808/YP3676, FGC27809/YP3677, FGC27810, FGC27812, FGC27817, FGC27819/YP3680, FGC27821/YP3681, FGC27822/YP3682, FGC27825/YP3684, FGC27827/YP3685, FGC27828/YP3686, FGC27830, FGC27831, FGC27832/YP3687, FGC27833/YP3688, FGC27835/YP3689, FGC27836/YP3690, FGC27837, FGC27838/YP3691, FGC27840/Y17293, FGC27841/YP2228, FGC27842/YP3693, FGC27843, FGC27865/YP2229, FGC27867/YP3708, FGC27874, FGC27875/YP3712, FGC27876/YP3715, FGC27876/YP3715, FGC27877/YP3716, FGC27879/YP3717, FGC27880/YP3718, FGC27881/YP3719, FGC27882, FGC27885/YP3720, FGC27887/YP3721, FGC27888, FGC27889, FGC27890/YP3722, FGC27891, FGC27892/YP3723, FGC27893, FGC27895, FGC27897, FGC27898, FGC27899, FGC27900/YP3725, FGC27901/YP3726, FGC27902/YP3727, FGC27903, FGC27904, FGC27905, FGC27906/YP3728, FGC27907, FGC27908, FGC27909/YP3729, FGC27911/YP3733, FGC27912/YP3734, FGC27914, FGC27915/YP3735, FGC27919/YP3737, FGC27920/YP3738, FGC27923/YP3739, FGC27925/YP3740, FGC27926/YP3741, FGC27927/YP3742, FGC27928/YP3743, FGC27935/YP3749, FGC27938/YP3751, FGC27939, FGC27940, FGC27941/YP3752, FGC27953, FGC27963/YP2250, FGC27973/YP3767, FGC27975, FGC27983/YP3771, FGC27984/YP3773, FGC27985, FGC27986/YP3774, FGC27991, FGC27992, FGC28000/YP3782, FGC28001/YP3783, FGC28003, FGC28004/YP3785, FGC28007, FGC28008/YP3787, FGC28013/YP3788, FGC28014/YP3789, FGC28015/YP3790, FGC28016/YP3791, FGC28017/YP3792, FGC28019, FGC28068/YP3803, FGC28070/YP3804, FGC28073, FGC28077, FGC28078, FGC28079, FGC28080, FGC28081/YP3811, FGC28083/YP3813, FGC28100, FGC28103/YP3826, FGC28109/YP3830, FGC28113/YP3832, FGC28115/YP3834, FGC28119, FGC28121, FGC28122/YP3838, L1086, L1087/V1143, L1088, L1096, L1097, L1102, L1103, L1104, L1106/V1329, L1107/V1342, L1108/V1381, L1109/V1490, L1110, L1111/V1767, L1113, L1114, L1117, L1119, L1122, L1126, L1131, L1133, L1134, L1138, L1139/V3736, L1141, L1144, L1146, L1147, L1148, L1151, L1152, L1154, L1156, L1157, L1158, L1159, L1160, L1161, L1233, L1236, YP3417

• • A00a   L1149, FGC25576, FGC26292, FGC26293, FGC27741
• • A00b   A4987/YP3666, A4981, A4982/YP2683, A4984/YP2995, A4985/YP3292, A4986, A4988/YP3731

A0-T   L1085, AF3, L1089, L1090, L1093, L1095, L1098, L1099, L1101, L1105, L1116, L1118, L1120, L1121, L1123, L1124, L1125, L1127, L1128, L1129, L1130, L1132, L1135, L1136, L1137, L1142, L1143, L1145, L1150, L1155, L1235
• • A0   CTS2809/L991, L529.2, L896, L982, L984, L990, L993, L995, L997, L998, L999, L1000, L1001, L1006, L1008, L1010, L1012, L1016, L1018, L1055, V148, V149, V154, V165, V166, V172, V173, V176, V177, V190, V196, V223, V225, V229, V233, V239
• • A0~ PF825.1
• • • A0a   L979, L980, L987, L996, L1011, L1015, L1017
• • • • A0a1   L1070, L1072, L1073, L1075, L1076, L1078, L1079, L1080, L1081, L1082, V150, V153, V157, V158, V159, V162, V164, V170
• • • •  A0a1a   P114, V151, V152, V161.1, V169, V181, V195
• • • •  A0a1b   L1289
• • • • A0a2   L981, L983, L988, L994, L1007, L1014, V203
• • • A0b   L92.2, L1035, L1036, L1037, L1038, L1039, L1040, L1041, L1042, L1043, L1044, L1045, L1046, L1047, L1048, L1049, L1050, L1051, L1052, L1054, L1056, L1057, L1058
• • A1   P305, L985, L986, L1002, L1003, L1004, L1005, L1084, L1112, L1153, V161.2, V168, V171, V174, V238, V241, V250
• • • A1a   M31, P82, V4, V14, V15, V25, V26, V28, V30, V40, V48, V57, V58, V63, V191, V201, V204, V215
• • • A1a~ V53, V214, V236
• • • A1b   P108, FGC8027, L989, L1009, L1013, L1053, M11301/Z11908, V221, Z11891, Z11892, Z11893, Z11894, Z11895, Z11896, Z11897, Z11898, Z11899, Z11900, Z11901, Z11902, Z11903, Z11904, Z11905, Z11906, Z11907, Z11909, Z11910, Z11911, Z11912, Z11913, Z11914, Z11915, Z11916, Z11917, Z11918, Z11919, Z17890, Z17891, Z17892, Z17893, Z17894, Z17895, Z17896, Z17897, Z17898, Z17899, Z17900
• • • • A1b1   L419/PF712
• • • •  A1b1a   L602, V50, V82, V198, V224
• • • •  A1b1a1   M14, M23, L968/M29/P3/PN3, M71, M135, M141, M206, M276/P247, M277/P248, MEH1, P4, P5, P36.1, Page71, Page87, Page95
• • • •  A1b1a1~ V139.1, V141
• • • •  • • A1b1a1a   M6, M49/Page41, M196
• • • •  • • • A1b1a1a1   P28
• • • •  • • • A1b1a1a2   L963
• • • •  • • • • A1b1a1a2a   M114, M212
• • • •  • • • •  A1b1a1a2a1~V97
• • • •  • • • •  A1b1a1a2a1a   P262
• • • •  • • • •  A1b1a1a2a1a~ PF3627.1/V218.1, V60, V61, V70, V72, V79, V80, V81, V180, V188, V192, V200, V228, V242
• • • •  • • • • A1b1a1a2b~ L949, L950, L951, L952, L954, L955, L956, L958, L959, L961, L964, L965, L966, L973, L974, L975, L976, Page52.3
• • • •  • • • A1b1a1a3~ Page110
• • • •   A1b1a2~ L600, L601, L603
• • • •  A1b1b   M32
• • • •  A1b1b1   M28
• • • •  A1b1b2   L427, L430, M144, M190/Page35/PF1373, M220, M305/Page17, P289/PF1372, Page50, PF1365/V160
• • • •   A1b1a2~ Page10
• • • •  • • A1b1b2a   M51/Page42, M229, M239/Page89, P71, P100
• • • •  • • • A1b1b2a1   P291
• • • •  • • • • A1b1b2a1a   P102
• • • •  • • A1b1b2b   M13/PF1374, M63/PF1079, M127, M202, M219
• • • •  • • A1b1a2b~ L411/PF11, L412, L414, L420, L421, L422, L423, L424, L425, L426, L428, L429, L436/PF962, L437/PF965, L439, L441/PF1287, L442/PF1300, Page53, Page77/PF1364/V10
• • • •  • • • A1b1b2b1   M118
• • • •  • • • A1b1a2b2~ M9462/PF1361/V1, PF1358/V193, PF1362/V156, PF1363/V155, M9531/PF1366/V230, PF1367/V243, PF1368/V194, PF1369/V51, PF1370/V66, PF1371/V56
• • • •  • • • A1b1a2b3~ V89/PF1359, V98
• • • A1c~ V67
• • • • BT   M91, L413/PF1409/V31, L418, L438, L440, L604/PF1243, L962, L969, L1060/PF1021, L1061/PF1101, L1062/PF302, L1071/M8945, L1220/M9212, M42, M94, M139, M251/M9122, M299, M8947, M8949, M8951, M8952, M8953/PF1405/V216, M8954, M8955, M8956, M8957, M8958, M8959, M8961, M8967, M8968, M8969/PF1407/V21, M8970, M8971, M8972, M8973, M8976, M8977, M8979, M8980, M8983, M8986, M8988, M8993, M8994, M8995, M8997, M8999, M9000, M9001, M9003, M9004, M9005, M9006, M9008, M9009, M9010, M9011, M9015, M9016, M9017, M9019, M9020, M9021, M9025, M9026, M9027, M9028, M9030, M9031, M9032, M9034, M9036, M9037, M9038, M9039, M9041, M9042, M9045, M9046, M9054, M9056, M9057, M9064, M9065, M9066, M9075, M9076, M9079, M9080, M9081, M9083, M9086, M9087, M9089, M9094, M9095, M9097, M9098, M9099, M9100, M9103, M9105, M9109, M9110, M9111, M9112, M9113, M9114, M9115, M9116, M9117, M9118/Page81, M9121, M9123, M9124, M9125, M9126, M9128, M9129, M9130, M9131, M9133, M9135, M9136, M9138, M9139, M9140, M9141, M9142, M9143, M9145, M9146, M9148, M9151, M9152, M9156, M9157, M9159, M9162, M9163, M9165, M9166, M9169, M9173, M9174/S1572, M9176, M9177, M9178, M9179, M9180, M9182, M9187, M9188, M9189, M9192, M9193, M9194.3, M9195, M9196, M9197, M9198, M9199, M9200, M9202, M9204, M9209, M9210, M9213, M9214, M9215, M9216, M9217, M9218, M9219, M9220, M9221, M9223, M9225, M9226, M9227, M9228, M9230, M9231, M9235, M9237, M9238, M9239, M9240, M9242, M9244, M9245, M9246, M9248, M9249, M9251, M9252, M9253, M9254, M9255, M9257, M9258, M9260, M9261, M9262, M9263, M9265, M9266, M9267, M9269, M9271, M9277, M9278/PF969, M9280, M9282, M9283, M9284, M9285, M9286, M9287, M9288/PF985, M9289, M9290, M9291, M9292, M9293, M9295, M9296, M9298/Z12093, M9300, M9301, M9302, M9303, M9310, M9311, M9312, M9315, M9316, M9317, M9318, M9319, M9321, M9322, M9323, M9325, M9326, M9327, M9328, M9331, M9334, M9335, M9336/Page26, M9338, M9340, M9341, M9343, M9344, M9346, M9347, M9348, M9349, M9352, M9353, M9356, M9357, M9359, M9360, M9361, M9362, M9365, M9366, M9367, M9368, M9369, M9370, M9372, M9373, M9374, M9376, M9378, M9379, M9380, M9387, M9389, M9390, M9393, M9394, M9396, M9397, M9398, M9405, M9406, M9408, M9410, M9417, M9425, M11760, P97, PF713, PF1096, SRY10831.1, V29/PF1408, V59/PF1411, V64/PF1412, V187/PF1403, V202/PF1404, V235/PF1410, Y8310, Y8311, Y8314, Y8316, Y8319, Y8320, Y8322, Y8323, Y8325, Y8488, Y8489, Y9422, Y10888, Z12129, Z17365, Z17366, Z17371, Z17372, Z17373, Z17385, Z17388, Z17389, Z17390, Z40372, Z40373, Z40374, Z40375, Z40376, Z40377, Z40378, Z40379, Z40380, Z40381, Z40382, Z40383, Z40384, Z40385, Z40386, Z40387, Z40388, Z40389, Z40390, Z40391, Z40392, Z40393, Z40394, Z40395, Z40396, Z40397, Z40398, Z40399, Z40400, Z40401, Z40402, Z40403, Z40404, Z40405, Z40406, Z40407, Z40408, Z40409, Z40410, Z40411, Z40412, Z40413


Y-DNA haplogroup A contains lineages deriving from the earliest branching in the human Y chromosome tree. The oldest branching event, separating A0-P305 and A1-V161, is thought to have occurred about 140,000 years ago. Haplogroups A0-P305, A1a-M31 and A1b1a-M14 are restricted to Africa and A1b1b-M32 is nearly restricted to Africa. The haplogroup that would be named A1b2 is composed of haplogroups B through T. The internal branching of haplogroup A1-V161 into A1a-M31, A1b1, and BT (A1b2) may have occurred about 110,000 years ago. A0-P305 is found at low frequency in Central and West Africa. A1a-M31 is observed in northwestern Africans; A1b1a-M14 is seen among click language-speaking Khoisan populations. A1b1b-M32 has a wide distribution including Khoisan speaking and East African populations, and scattered members on the Arabian Peninsula.


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Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Cruciani et al, A Revised Root for the Human Y Chromosomal Phylogenetic Tree--The Origin of Patrilineal Diversity in Africa. The American Journal of Human Genetics, doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.05.002, 2011.
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Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Mendez et al, An African American Paternal Lineage Adds an Extremely Ancient Root to the Human Y Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree. (abstract) American Journal of Human Genetics 28 February 2013.
Mohyuddin et al, Detection of Novel Y SNPs Provides Further Insights into Y Chromosomal Variation in Pakistan. Journal of Human Genetics, 2006.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
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Scozzari et al, An Unbiased Resource of Novel SNP Markers Provides a New Chronology for the Human Y Chromosome and Reveals a Deep Phylogenetic Structure in Africa, Genome Research, Vol. doi:10.1101/gr.160788.113, 2014.
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ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
Y Haplogroup A, Bonnie Schrack.
The African DNA Project (A), Dr. Ana Oquendo Pabon.

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