From ISOGG Wiki
|Founder(s)||Anne Wojcicki and Linda Avey|
|Headquarters||Mountain View, California, USA|
|Key people||Board of Directors: Anne Wojcicki (CEO), Andy Page (President), Esther Dyson, Patrick Chung (NEA). |
|Services||Genetic testing, Online genome service|
|Owner(s)||Investors like Google, NEA, MPM. |
23andMe is a privately held personal genomics and biotechnology company based in Mountain View, California, that claims to be developing new methods and technologies that will enable consumers to understand their own genetic information. The company is named for the 23 pairs of chromosomes in a human cell. 
Main categories on the corporate website: The Spittoon (blog), Ancestry (Relative Finder, global origins, ancestral lineage), Health (carrier status, disease risks, drug response), how it works (spit kit), Research. 
- 1 Products
- 2 Chip versions
- 3 Scientists and genealogists
- 4 Scientific papers
- 5 External tools, further investigation of raw data
- 6 Reviews
- 7 Press and media
- 8 History
- 9 Videos
- 10 Further reading
- 11 See also
- 12 External links
- 13 References
There is one DNA test available which genotypes around 570,000 SNPs of the human genome with a Illumina OmniExpress Plus customized chip. The test provides ancestry and health information in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Canada. In other countries the test currently only provides ancestry information.
The corporate website under sign up provides a free demo account to check the product features.
Ancestry / genetic genealogy
For genetic genealogists the following DNA test results are interesting:
- Autosomal DNA + X-DNA: very good data to trace deep and recent ancestry and find relatives is provided. The test in v3 delivers about 956,000 SNPs on the 22 autosomes and the X-chromosome. This is about 10% of the existing human SNPs  and currently a very good coverage.
- Paternal line - Y chromosome (Y-DNA): basic data for surname projects (paternal clans) and male related prehistory migrations is provided. About 2,000 SNPs are tested and the result mapped to a haplogroup tree with medium resolution (corresponds largely with the outdated YCC tree of 2008). External tools can help to update the Y-DNA haplogroup nomenclature, but can hardly increase the resolution of v3 results.
- Maternal line - mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA): basic data for female related prehistory migrations is provided. About 2,500 SNPs (~15% of mtDNA) are tested and the result mapped to a haplogroup tree with good resolution. External tools can update the assignment to a mtDNA haplogroup and sometimes increase the resolution of v3 results.
All DNA test results can be downloaded as raw data. The various file formats (v2, v3) are widely recognized by external tools.
A range of different chips have been used for the 23andMe test since the introduction of the service:
- v1: November 2007
- v2: September 2008, ~555K SNPs
- v3: November 2010, >900K SNPs
- v4: November 2013, ~570K SNPs
Rebekah Canada has produced heat maps showing the distribution of SNPs on the 23andMe v2, v3 and v4 chips:
Scientists and genealogists
Leadership Team: Anne Wojcicki (CEO and Co-Founder), Andy Page (President), Brian T. Naughton PhD (Founding Scientist, Haplogroup Tree Mutation Mapper), Chris Castro (VP Communications), Joanna L. Mountain PhD (Senior Director of Research), Jonathan Ward (VP Strategic Alliances), Judith Blunt (Director of Regulatory Affairs and Quality Assurance), Neil Rothstein (VP Marketing), Steve Lemon (VP Product and Engineering), Uta Francke MD (Senior Medical Director), Jeffrey D. Pollard MD (Director of Medical Affairs). 
The 23andMe scientists have published a number of papers in scientific peer-reviewed journals using data from 23andMe customers who have consented to have their information used for research purposes. See the list of 23andMe publications for details.
External tools, further investigation of raw data
With the raw data a variety of tools can be used to explore your DNA further.
Autosomal DNA (atDNA) and full genome
- Autosomal DNA tools
- Admixture analyses. Complementary and sometimes refining to Global Similarity, e.g. Doug McDonald BGA, Dodecad Ancestry Project, Eurogenes, etc.
- mtDNA haplogroup nomenclature: James Lick's mthap - utility for analysing mtDNA haplogroup data (based on latest PhyloTree.org, Beta Test of new versions)
- Y-DNA SNP identifying: YDNA SNPs Comparison Project (Adriano Squecco, daver.info) since v2 new SNP have been found, but with v3 and in 2012 the potential of new discoveries seems low.
Other and help
- Commercial genome analysis software: Enlis Genomics
- ISOGG help pages Nov 2009: 23andMe tools, I've tested at 23andMe now what?
- February 2008: Ann Turner on personal genomics companies 23andMe and deCODEme
- March 2009: Blaine Bettinger - Genetic Testing With 23andMe Ancestry Testing (Part 2/2 genealogical aspects), Part 1/2: health/traits
- Jan. 2010: Erica Baker - 23and... you? the African-American 23andme experience
- March 2010: Paul Stamatiou - Review: 23andMe DNA Testing for Health, Disease & Ancestry
- April 2010: David Pike - Pike DNA Testing at 23andMe (Pike DNA Project)
- June 2010: Neil Saunders - 23andMe – yes, me – part 3 (bioinformatics researcher in Australia)
- July 2010: Ed Yong - How I got my genes tested, and the birth of science writer disease risk Top Trumps
- July 2010: Comparison and Analysis from 23andMe's Ancestry Finder by CeCe Moore
- Aug. 2010: Debbie Kennett - Exploring my genome with 23andMe - ancestry + disease risks, carrier status / drug responses, traits (UK perspective).
- March 2011: Jan-Paul Buchwald - 23andMe personal DNA test
- April 2011: Elly Hart - Why 23andMe Genetic Testing Is A Waste Of Time And Money
- May 2011: Nikola Danaylov (Socrates) - 23andMe DNA Test Review: Its Right For Me But Is It Right for You?
- November 2011: Susanne Meisel - Looking into the genetic crystal ball – A personal account of taking a direct-to-consumer genetic test (UK PhD student)
- April 2013: The basics at 23andMe by Kitty Cooper
- October 2013: Genetics - the case of 23andMe (in French) by Joss Ar Gall, 2 October 2013.
- December 2013: R1b-L21 & U3 D.N.A. Inside (in French) by Hervé Pencalet, 1 December 2013.
Ancestry Composition Reviews
- 23andMe's New Ancestry Painting - First Look! by CeCe Moore, 6 December 2012
- 23andMe Ancestry Composition examples: Part One by Andrea Badger, 6 December 2012
- New Worldview at 23andMe by Roberta Estes, 7 December 2012
- My Ancestry Composition from 23andMe by Aidan Byrne, 7 December 2012
- 23andMe's new Ancestry Composition - a British perspective by Debbie Kennett, 8 December 2012
- Owston DNA studies: Ancestry Composition of three sets of siblings by Jim Owston, 25 December 2012
- Ancestry Composition to be fixed by Dienekes Pontikos, 26 January 2013
Press and media
23andMe has been featured on Finding Your Roots with Henry Louis Gates Jr., Oprah Winfrey television show, The New York Times, The Economist, San Jose Mercury News, San Francisco Chronicle and has been covered by other high-profile media groups.
- April 2007: The Genetic Genealogist Blaine Bettinger - 23andMe Revisited
- May 2007: GigaOM Kevin Kelleher - Google, Sergey and 23andMe: Why it all makes sense
- Nov 2007: Wired Magazine 15.12 Thomas Goetz - 23AndMe Will Decode Your DNA for $1,000. Welcome to the Age of Genomics
- March 2008: NBC Today show Decoding your DNA
- October 2008: Time magazine Best Inventions of 2008: 1. The Retail DNA Test
- October 2009: SocialNetworkingWatch Mark Brooks - Chia Hwu, Community Manager At 23andMe.com (Interview)
- March 2010: New York Times Consumers slow to embrace the age of genomics '
- June 2010: Wired Magazine 18.07 Thomas Goetz - Sergey Brin’s Search for a Parkinson’s Cure
- December 2012: Genes, patents, and big business: at 23andMe, are you the customer or the product? (report by Adrianne Jefferies for The Verge)
- 2 January 2013: Why we have a right to consumer genetics (report by Susan Young in the MIT Technology Review)
Focused on genetic genealogy topics.
- April 2006: 23andMe was founded by Anne Wojcicki and Linda Avey.
- 17 November 2007: The 23andMe test was officially launched in the US. The initial cost of 23andMe's product for US-consumers was $999 (580,000 SNPs using Illumina technology).
- 22 January 2008: the service was extended to Canada and 49 European countries.
- September 2008: the test was updated from V1 to V2 and the cost reduced to $399. This was possible with the Illumina HumanHap550-Quad+ chip, capable to read about 600,000 SNPs (expanded range) from all Chromosomes and the mtDNA.
- September 2009: Co-founder Linda Avey leaves 23andMe to focus on Alzheimer's Research. 
- November 2010: 23andMe introduced an alternative pricing option of $199 with a required one-year subscription of $5 a month. The newly introduced V3 test reads almost 1,000,000 SNPs with the Illumina OmniExpress Plus customized chip (base OmniExpress 733,202 SNPs). For both ancestral lineages (mitochondrial DNA and Y-DNA) over 2000 SNPs are recorded making possible Haplogroup Discovery of over 750 maternal lineages and over 500 different paternal lineages.
- March 2011: the pricing was changed to $99 with $9/month (for at least one year). This subscription would provide subscribers with updates on discoveries made about their DNA over time. A single-fee payment of $399 without the commitment continues also to be available.
- June 2011: On the SCGS-Meeting 23andMe stated to have tested about 75,000 individuals.
- June 15, 2011: 23andMe announced in three and a half years of service their database has grown to include the DNA data of more than 100,000 people. Other statistics include 60,000 users had completed on average 10 surveys, 100,000 community forum posts, more than 60,000 pairs of relatives have been discovered, 57% of 23andMe users are male, 47% share their data with other users, and 12% have multiple ancestries.
- 27 September 2011: 23andMe announced at Health 2.0 in San Francisco a limited enrollment pilot program for current members called Exome 80x. The test will measure 50 million base pairs of the participant's exome at a cost of $999. This new test will not be good for ancestry as the test focuses on the exome and will not measure much of mitochondrial or Y-chromosome DNA.
- November 2011 technical status info: v3-only raw data download has 960,520 SNPs (1,764 for Y-DNA and 2,459 for mtDNA). Relative Finder looks for segments of DNA from a common ancestor (IBD = Identical By Descent). Segments of at least 7 cM (centiMorgans) and at least 700 SNPs are reported. Additional segments need to be at least 5 cM and have at least 700 SNPs.
- December 2011 / Jan. 2012: major discussions about changes of terms for expired PGS subscription customers. Together with customer wishes for more ancestry and genealogical functions a "Ancestry Ambassador Group" was founded, to further the interests of the genetic genealogy community and to promote autosomal DNA testing for genealogy. Members are CeCe Moore, Dr. Ann Turner, Larry Vick, Dr. Tim Janzen, Andrea Badger and Shannon Christmas. 
- 10 May 2012: The subscription model was eliminated and a single $299 price introduced. Before: $99 with required 1-year subscription to 23andMe's Personal Genome Service® billed at $9 per month (including updates on discoveries made about DNA over time). There was also a Prepaid option for $207 which includes the subscription for 1 year. The third option was a lifetime subscription for $399. 
- 11 December 2012: Ancestry Composition (Ancestry Painting 2) released with much more detail comparing to 22 reference populations builded upon customers and public data sets. Company has more than 180,000 customers and sets growth goal of one million customers: single price drops to $99.
- 25 April 2013: 23andMe has genotyped more than 250,000 customers.
- May 2013: The ancestral composition of 23andMe's database is as follows: about 65% are of northern European ancestry; 6% African American; 5% eastern Asian; 4.5% Latino; 3.7% southern European; 2.6% South Asian.
- November 2013: 23andMe introduces the V4 chip (577,382 SNPs) test which tests for significantly less variants then V3 (967,000 SNPs) and is not compatible for transfer to FTDNA Family Finder.
- 18 June 2015: 23andMe announces that it has genotyped its one millionth customer.
Funding and investment
The company has received Series A, B, C and D funding from several prominent technology and health science companies, strategic angel investors and venture capital firms: 
- May 2007 Series A $9M  : Google Ventures $3.9M, wikipedia:Genentech, New Enterprise Associates, MDV - Mohr Davidow Ventures (sold their stake to invest in Navigenics)
- June 2009 Series B ~$27.8M : Google Ventures $2.6M , Sergey Brin & Google $25M 
- Nov. 2010/Jan. 2011 Series C $31M : Johnson & Johnson Development Corporation, MPM Capital $9M, Google Ventures, The Roche Venture Fund
- December 2012 Series D >$50M : Participants in the financing include Yuri Milner, a new investor, as well as existing investors Sergey Brin, 23andMe CEO Anne Wojcicki, New Enterprise Associates, Google Ventures and MPM Capital.
- 23andMe Medical Innovations Briefing A lecture by Anne Wojcicki of 23andMe. She discusses research into human genomes, the history of 23andMe, how it works, how it has helped patients, and plans for the future. The lecture was filmed at a breakfast briefing at The Royal Society of Medicine in London on 7th May 2013.
- Your data to explore: an interview with Anne Wojcicki by Jane Gitschier. PLOS Genetics 15 October 2015.
- 23andMe projects
- 23andMe wish list
- Y-DNA SNP testing chart
- mtDNA testing comparison chart
- Autosomal DNA testing comparison chart
- Shipping DNA kits
- Official 23andMe website
- Ancestry Composition guide
- The Spittoon - Official 23andMe blog
- 23andMe on Facebook
- CrunchBase Company Profile
- The life and times of Lilly Mendel A blog by Linda Avey, co-founder of 23andMe
- 23andMe on Twitter
- Anne Wojcicki on Twitter
- Linda Avey on Twitter
- Dec. 2013: https://www.23andme.com/about/board/
- Apr. 2012: https://www.23andme.com/about/corporate/ and Corporate Fact Sheet Sep. 2011
- Apr. 2012: https://www.23andme.com/about/corporate/
- Apr. 2012: https://www.23andme.com/
- "International HapMap Project Overview". International HapMap Project. 2012-02-22. http://www.genome.gov/10001688. Retrieved 2012-03-05.
- Dec. 2013: https://www.23andme.com/about/leadership/
- Dec. 2013: https://www.23andme.com/about/editorial/
- Dec. 2013: https://www.23andme.com/about/advisors/
- Jan. 2012: http://spittoon.23andme.com/2012/01/22/new-23andme-ancestry-ambassadors-group/
- Baertlein, Lisa (2007-11-20). "Google-backed 23andMe offers $999 DNA test". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/tech/webguide/internetlife/2007-11-20-23andme-launch_N.htm. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
- Bettinger Blaine. 23andMe launches their personal genome service. The Genetic Genealogist, 17 November 2007.
- 23andMe launches web-based personal genome service. 23andMe press release, 22 January 2008.
- "Press Release: 23andMe Democratizes Personal Genetics - September 9, 2008". https://www.23andme.com/about/press/20080909b/.
- Kara Swisher (2009-09-04). "23andMe Co-Founder Linda Avey Leaves Personal Genetics Start-Up to Focus on Alzheimer's Research". AllThingsD.com. https://allthingsd.com/20090904/23andme-co-founder-linda-avey-leaves-start-up-to-focus-on-alzheimers-research/. Retrieved 2012-04-14.
- "Sale or no Sale - Dr. James M. Owston, December 2, 2011". https://www.23andme.com/you/community/thread/10470/. ; FAQ 23andme: How does 23andMe genotype my DNA? Y-Chromosome Genome Comparison Errata for 23andME Data Compilation, 5 February 2011
- "Our Service: Ancestry Features / techniques". 23andMe. https://www.23andme.com/ancestry/techniques/. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
- "News from 23andMe and FTDNA at SCGS 2011 Jamboree - June 12, 2011". http://www.yourgeneticgenealogist.com/2011/06/news-from-23andme-and-ftdna-at-scgs.html.
- "23andMe Database Surpasses 100,000 Users". 23andMe. https://www.23andme.com/about/press/23andme_database_100000k_users/. Retrieved 2012-02-21.
- "Exome 80x". 23andMe. 2011-09-27. https://www.23andme.com/exome/. Retrieved 2011-09-27.
- "How does Relative Finder calculate my matches?". 23andMe. https://www.23andme.com/you/faqwin/rfcalculation/. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
- 23andMe Aims to Close Genetics Literacy Gap Among Americans in Celebration of DNA Day. 23andMe press release, 25 April 2013.
- Mountain J. "DNA and Family History: Getting the most out of 23andMe’s genealogical features." Handout for a lecture at the Southern California Genealogical Society's 2013 Jamboree. Accessed 1 June 2013.
- 23andMe Genotypes One Millionth Customer. 23andMe press release, 18 June 2015.
- Wojcicki Anne. Power of one million. 23andMe blog, 18 June 2015.
- Apr. 2012: https://www.23andme.com/about/corporate/ and Corporate Fact Sheet Sep. 2011
- "Google invests in genetics firm". BBC News. 2007-05-22. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/6682451.stm. Retrieved 2012-04-13.
- Dec. 2009: http://techcrunch.com/2009/12/23/23andme-funding/ and http://pulse2.com/2009/12/24/23andme-raises-28-million-in-series-b/
- June 2009: http://www.genomeweb.com/dxpgx/google-invests-another-26m-23andme and http://money.cnn.com/2009/06/18/technology/google_23andMe/
- https://www.secondmarket.com/company/23andme (acc. Apr. 2012)
- January 2011: https://www.23andme.com/about/press/20110107/
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "23andMe".|