Ethics, guidelines and standards
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This page provides a selection of resources on the subject of ethics, guidelines and standards which are particularly applicable to genetic genealogists.
Codes of conduct, guidelines and standards for genetic genealogists
- Genetic genealogy standards
- For background on the creation of the standards see the blog post by Blaine Bettinger Announcing the genetic genealogy standards. The Genetic Genealogist, 10 January 2015.
- ISOGG Project Administrator Guidelines
- Family Tree DNA Group Administrator Guidelines
- DNA Privacy A video in DearMyrtle's series "Demystifying my DNA tests" where she discusses the privacy issues relating to DNA testing with Angie Bush, Blaine Bettinger and Judy Russell
Codes of conduct, guidelines and standards for genealogists
- National Genealogical Society's Standards and Guidelines for Genealogists (US)
- The Society of Genealogists' Principles of Genealogical Research (UK)
- Council for the Advancement of Forensic Genealogy: Standards of Practice and Conduct (US)
- Board for Certification of Genealogists' Genealogical Proof Standard (US)
- Board for Certification of Genealogists' Code of Ethics and Conduct (US)
- Association of Professional Genealogists' Code of Ethics
- IAJGS Ethics for Jewish Genealogists Guidelines from the International Association for Jewish Genealogists
- The Australian Organisation of Family History Association's Code of Ethics
Guidelines for medical and academic research
- Personalised healthcare: Medical profiling and online medicine: the ethics of 'personalised healthcare' in a consumer age. A report from the Nuffield Council of Bioethics (UK)
- The four principles of biomedical ethics by Adrian Alcroft, BioMedCentral, 13 July 2012
- Code of Practice for Research compiled by the UK Research Integrity Office
- Good research practice: principles and guidelines compiled by the Medical Research Council (UK)
- The Concordat to Support Research Integrity An initiative from Universities UK, the Wellcome Trust and research councils to provide a framework for good research conduct in the UK
- Guidelines for Human Biobanks and Genetic Research Databases from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
- Privacy and Progress in Whole Genome Sequencing A report from the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, October 2012 (US)
- Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, concerning Genetic Testing for Health Purposes Council of Europe, Strasbourg 2008.
Statements on "race"
- American Anthropological Association Statement on Race 17 May 1998.
- Biological aspects of race American Association of Physical Anthropologists Statement on Biological Aspects of Race. Published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology 1996; 101: 569-570.
- Mathews DJH and Jamal L. Revisiting respect for persons in genomic research. Genes 2014; 5: 1-12.
- Angrist M. Open window: when easily identifiable genomes and traits are in the public domain PLoS One 2014; 9(3): e92060.
- Hayden EC. Ethics: Taboo genetics. Nature 2013; 502 (7469).
- Gymrek M, McGuire AL, Golan D, Halperin E, Erlich Y. Identifying Personal Genomes by Surname Inference. Science 2013 339 (6117): 321–4.
- Zawati MH, Borry P, Howard HC. Closure of population biobanks and direct-to-consumer genetic testing companies. Human Genetics 2011 Sep;130(3):425-32.
- Gitschier J. Inferential genotyping of Y chromosomes in Latter-Day Saints founders and comparison to Utah samples in the HapMap project. Am J Hum Genet 2009 84(2):251-8.
- Caulfield T, Fullerton S, Ali-Khan SE et al. Race and ancestry in biomedical research: exploring the challenges. GenomeMedicine 2009; 1(1): 8.
- Knerr S, Ramos E, Nowinski J, Dixon K, Bonham VL. Human difference in the genomic era: Facilitating a socially responsible dialogue. BMC Medical Genomics. 2010 May 26;3:20.
- Lee SSJ, Mountain J, Koenig B et al. The ethics of characterizing difference: guiding principles on using racial categories in human genetics. Open letter. Genome Biology 2008; 9:404.
- Sankar P, Cho MK, Mountain J. Race and ethnicity in genetic research. American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A, 2007 May 1;143A(9):961-70.
- Barbujani G. Human races: Classifying people vs. understanding diversity. Current Genomics 2005; 4: 215-226.
- Williams SR. Genetic genealogy: the Woodson family's experience. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry. 2005; 29(2): 225-52.
- Social Studies of Science, October 2008. A special issue discussing ongoing debates concerning race, genomics, and disease.
- Genetics for the Human Race A special issue of Nature Genetics published in November 2004.
- Kaiser, Jocelyn. Pioneering Icelandic genetics company denied approval for data-mining plan Science Insider, 20 June 2013.
- Hern, Alex. Are there ethical lapses in the Times' story on William's "Indian ancestry"? New Statesman, 14 June 2013.
- Johnson, Bobbie. How a spit of royal DNA makes money for Rupert Murdoch. Stories that Matter, 14 June 2013.
- Middleton, Anna. Attention The Times: Prince William’s DNA is not a toy. The Conversation, 14 June 2013.
- Retassie, Ruth. Genetic test to assess 'racial purity' of Hungarian MP condemned. Bionews, 18 June 2012.
- Pauwels, Eleonore. Leave me your DNA... and I'll 3D-print your face . The Guardian, 1 June 2013.
- Corpas, Manuel. A genome blogger manifesto GigaScience 2012, 1:15.
- King, Elizabeth B. Ludwin. A conflict of interests: privacy, truth, and compulsory DNA testing for Argentina's children of the disappeared. Cornell International Law Journal 2011, Volume 44, pp536-568.
- Harmon, Amy. Indian Tribe Wins Fight to Limit Research of Its DNA. New York Times, 21 April 2010.
- Sahota, Puneet Chawla. Genetics research and American Indian/Alaska Native communities
- Schonfeld, Erick. It's my DNA, and I'd like to keep it that way Business 2.0, 27 September 2002 (Internet Archive version)
- Blog.Bioethics.gov The blog of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues
- Genomethics blog A blog from Anna Middleton, a social scientist and registered genetic counsellor researching ethics and genomics at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge, UK
- Genealogical Privacy blog
Relevant blog posts
- A matter of consent by Judy Russell, The Legal Genealogist blog, 25 January 2015.
- A code of conduct for historians by Susannah Lipscomb. History Today, 3 December 2014.
- Nicholas Wade and race: building a scientific facade by Jennifer Raff, Violent Metaphors blog, 21 May 2014
- Games grandparents play by Judy Russell, The Legal Genealogist blog, 29 September 2013. (An article on the ethics of DNA tests for grandchildren.)
- Caught in the genetic social network by Anders Sandberg, Practical Ethics blog from Oxford University, 3 July 2013
- BritainsDNA, The Times and Prince William – the perils of publication by press release by Debbie Kennett, Cruwys News blog, 19 June 2013.
- DNA: life after death by Judy Russell, The Legal Genealogist, 30 June 2013.
- No (DNA) bullying by Roberta Estes, DNAeXplained, 15 May 2013.
- Racing to the wrong conclusion Genealogy for the Everyman blog, 9 February 2013. The article provides a good summary of the problem of assigning arbitrary labels to "races".
- The ethics of DNA testing by Judy G Russell, The Legal Genealogist, 18 November 2012.
- Why both sides are wrong in the race debate by Kenan Malik, Pandaemonium blog, 4 March 2012
- Does DNA Link 1991 Killing to Colonial-Era Family? by Blaine Bettinger, The Genetic Genealogist, 11 January 2012.
- Everyone has two family trees: a genealogical tree and a genetic tree by Blaine Bettinger, The Genetic Genealogist, 10 November 2009.
- If you are going to "debunk" race with gene testing, please stop by John Hawks, John Hawks weblog, 1 August 2005.
- Genome Ethics A survey being conducted as part of a study by ethics researchers at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in Cambridge, England.
- Australasian Association of Bioethics and Health Law
- Presidential Bioethics Commission (US)
- Committee on Publication Ethics (UK)
- Indigenous People's Council on Biocolonialism (US)
- Nuffield Council on Bioethics (UK)
- PHG Foundation (UK)
- UK Research Integrity Office
- Center for Transdisciplinary ELSI Research in Translational Genomics (US)
- Issues in Genetics, a website maintained by the US National Human Genome Research Institute which provides information on the policy, legal and ethical issues in genetic research
- WHO - Ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of human genomics
- The Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) Research Program
- Etiquette and ethics links from Cyndi's List
- HumGen International An international database on the legal and socio-ethical aspects of population genetics provided by the Centre of Genomics and Policy at McGill University, Quebec, Canada
- Ethics and genetics