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Famous DNA

Ancient DNA

From ISOGG Wiki

AncientDNA.png


A compilation of Ancient DNA haplotypes extracted from the ancient remains of groups and individuals.

Groups

The following are the results of Ancient DNA testing on the remains of more than one individual. The testing is then associated with a group of people or a geographical location of a group of people.

Basques of Aldaieta

HVR1 mitochondrial DNA sequences from a 6th-7th century Basque burial site reveals a diverse genetic population indicating that the Basques may not have been an "isolated" population[1].

Beothuks

An extinct Native American tribe indigenous to Newfoundland and Labrador, mtDNA has been extracted from the dentine of Chief Nonosabasut, and wife, Demasduit. In 1819, Chief Nonosabasut and his small tribe of Beothuks, encountered a party of ten armed English settlers at Red Indian Lake. A conflict ensued in which the chief was killed and Demasduit was taken prisoner, but died soon thereafter from tuberculosis[2].

Also significant to note is that Nonosabasut's Y-chromosome DNA was SNP confirmed haplogroup Q.

Name Haplo Haplotype
Nonosabasut X2a 093C,189C,213A,223T,278T
Demasduit C 223T,298C,325C,327T

Cro-Magnons

Mitochondrial DNA analysis of two circa 24,000 year-old Cro-Magnons found in the Paglicci Cave demonstrates a drastic difference between Neandertals and modern mtDNA sequences.[3]

Name Haplo Haplotype
Paglicci-25[4] HV 73A, 719G, 308A
Paglicci-12 N 223T

Kazakhstan Nomads

DNA analysis of the remains of nomadic peoples in Kazakhstan provides evidence of Western genetic influence in Asia between the 15th century BC and the 5th century AD[5].

Liechtenstein Cave Bronze-Age Family

Through anthropological DNA testing, the first prehistoric family tree has been established. From a group of forty human remains found in the Lichtenstein cave, near Dorste, Lower Saxony, Germany[6], viable Y-DNA and mtDNA was extracted from the remains[7].

Summary of Y Chromosomal DNA results of males tested

Group(# of individuals) Haplogroup[8] Closest FTDNA Kit# 3
9
3
3
9
0
1
9
3
9
1
3
8
5
a
3
8
5
b
4
3
9
3
8
9
i
3
9
2
3
8
9
ii
4
3
7
4
3
8
A(6) I-M170+ 66196 13 25 16 11 13 17 11 12 11 28 15 10
B(3) I-M170+ 66196 13 25 16 11 13 17 11 12 11 27 15 10
C(1) R-U106(S21)+ N18407 13 23 14 11 11 14 12 13 13 29 15 12
D(2) R-SRY10831.2- 106116 13 25 15 11 11 13 11 13 11 30 14 11
E(3) I-M170+ 88756 13 24 16 11 13 17 11 12 11 28 15 10

Mongolians

mtDNA, Y-chromosome DNA and nuclear DNA was successfully extracted from a 2,000 Year-Old Mongolian cemetery in the Egyin Gol Valley containing 99 individuals.[9]

Individuals

The following are the results of Ancient DNA testing on the remains of one individual.

Ice Maiden - "Juanita" of Peru

Also known as "Juanita", the Inca Ice Maiden was discovered on Mount Ampato, near Arequipa, Peru by Johann Reinhard in 1995. She was sacrificed sometime around the ages of 12-14 and lived about 500 years ago. Her body lay frozen at the mountaintop until a nearby volcanic eruption melted Mount Ampato's ice cap.[10]

Name Haplo Haplotype
Ice Maiden A[11] 16111T, 16223T, 16290T, 16319A

Ice Man - Ötzi of Italy

Widely known as "Ötzi (Oetzi)" the Iceman found in 1991 in the Italian Alps, is also known as "Similaun Man". Of the Neolithic era, Otzi lived between 3350-3300 B.C. in the "Copper Age". He was believed to be 46-years old when he died at the top of a mountain pass from wounds received[12]. The results of Ötzi's mtDNA and Y-DNA are shown below.

Name Haplo Haplotype
Otzi (Oetzi) - mtDNA K[13] 16224C, 16311C
Otzi (Oetzi) - Y DNA G G2a-L91[13]

Kwäday Dän Ts’ìnchi

In 1999, hikers came across human remains in a melting British Columbia glacier. Named Kwäday Dän Ts’ìnchi which means "long-ago person found", was a young man between the ages of 17-22, believed to have died around 550 years ago.[14]

Name Haplo Haplotype
Kwäday Dän Ts’ìnchi A[15] 16111T, 16189C, 16223T, 16290T, 16319A, 16362C

Medieval Mummy From Yangju

Medieval mummies have been found in Korea since 1968. Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome DNA analysis was conducted on a 17th-century male child mummy discovered in 2001. (Source)

mtDNA Results
Name Haplo Haplotype
Yangju Mummy D4 16223T, 16362C, 73G, 263G, 309.1C, 315.1C, 489C
Y Chromosome DNA Results
Name Haplogroup 393 390 19 391 389i 392
Name Haplogroup 393 390 19 391 389i 392
Yangju Mummy Unknown 13 22 15 10 14 15

Norwich Anglo-Saxon Skeleton

Is the Anglo-Saxon skeleton found at Norwich Castle indeed of Romani origin as stated in the media[16]? Or does the young Anglo-Saxon just share a partial haplotype similar to a Romani? (View sequences)

Name Haplo Haplotype
Anglo-Saxon X 16189A, 16223T, 16271C, 16278T

Shuká Kaa

Shuká Kaa (which means "Man Before Us") really was before the native Alaskans currently living in the region near On Your Knees Cave where he was found. Testing of 234 Alaska Indians and 163 Aleuts did not yield a mitochondrial DNA match to 10,300 year-old Shuká Kaa[17].

Name Haplo Haplotype
Shuká Kaa D4h3

Sven II Estridsen (The Last Viking King)

One of the world's oldest maternity cases has been solved utilizing mitochondrial DNA. Sven II Estridsen (c.1020-1074), the last Viking king of Denmark, and ancestor of all subsequent kings of Denmark is entombed in Roskilde Cathedral with other Danish royals. It was believed that Sven's mother, Estrid, was entombed in a pillar across the chancel. Lingering doubts about Estrid's identity have now been resolved through DNA testing proving that Estrid was not Sven's mother.[18]

Name Haplo Haplotype
Sven H 7028C

Listing requirements

To be listed on this page one or more of the following is observed:

  1. Published DNA results of the person or a relative in the paternal (surname) lineage.
    • Inferred paternal descent or relation is of limited evidence which could be disproved or improved by future research.
    • Usually with Y-STRs the haplogroup is only predicted, Y-SNPs confirm the haplogroup and will take precedence.
    • Company where testing was completed with published, verifiable results.
  2. Evidence to support if one of the following conditions is met:
    • In Publications(physical or web based): Must contain evidence of achievements and discoveries in scientific publications.
    • Mass Media presence: Revealed by coverage in multiple media outlets reaching millions of people.

Further reading

References

  1. Alzualde, Ainhoa; Izagirre, Neskuts; Alonso, Santos; Alonso, Antonio; Albarrán, Cristina; Azkarate, Agustin; de la Rúa, Concepción (2006). "Insights into the “isolation” of the Basques: mtDNA lineages from the historical site of Aldaieta (6th–7th centuries AD)". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 130 (3): 394–404. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20375. ISSN 0002-9483. 
  2. Kuch, Melanie; Gröcke, Darren R.; Knyf, Martin C.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Younghusband, Ban; Young, Terry; Marshall, Ingeborg; Willerslev, Eske et al. (2007). "A preliminary analysis of the DNA and diet of the extinct Beothuk: A systematic approach to ancient human DNA". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 132 (4): 594–604. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20536. ISSN 00029483. 
  3. Caramelli, D.; Lalueza-Fox, C.; Vernesi, C.; Lari, M.; Casoli, A.; Mallegni, F.; Chiarelli, B.; Dupanloup, I. et al. (2003). "Evidence for a genetic discontinuity between Neandertals and 24,000-year-old anatomically modern Europeans". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100 (11): 6593–6597. doi:10.1073/pnas.1130343100. ISSN 0027-8424. 
  4. Paglicci-25 might be pre-HV
  5. Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gilbert, M. Thomas P. (2011). "Paleogenomics of Archaic Hominins". Current Biology 21 (24): R1002–R1009. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2011.11.021. ISSN 09609822. 
  6. Google Map coordinates
  7. Schweitzer Ph.D, D. "Lichtenstein Cave Data Analysis". ISOGG Wiki. N.p., Published 23 March 2008. Web. 15 Nov. 2016.
  8. Suggested Haplogroup based on matches within FTDNA's public Projects
  9. Keyser-Tracqui, Christine; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand (2003). "Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of a 2,000-Year-Old Necropolis in the Egyin Gol Valley of Mongolia". The American Journal of Human Genetics 73 (2): 247–260. doi:10.1086/377005. ISSN 00029297. 
  10. Clark, Liesl. "Ice Mummies of the Inca." PBS. PBS, 1998. Web. 13 Nov. 2016.
  11. Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Catelli, Laura; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Roewer, Lutz; Vullo, Carlos; Salas, Antonio. "The complete mitogenome of a 500-year-old Inca child mummy". Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 16462 (Published online: 12 November 2015). doi: 10.1038/srep16462
  12. Ives, Sarah. "Was Ancient Alpine "Iceman" Killed in Battle?". National Geographic News. 30 October 2003. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Coia, V.; Cipollini, G.; Anagnostou, P.; Maixner, F.; Battaggia, C.; Brisighelli, F.; Gómez-Carballa, A; Destro Bisol, G.; Salas, A.; Zink, A. "Whole mitochondrial DNA sequencing in Alpine populations and the genetic history of the Neolithic Tyrolean Iceman". Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 18932. doi: 10.1038/srep18932.
  14. Bettinger, Blaine. "Kwäday Dän Ts’ìnchi – "Long-Ago Person Found"". The Genetic Genealogist. N.p., 2008. Web. 15 Nov. 2016.
  15. Monsalve, M. Victoria; Stone, Anne C.; Lewis, Cecil M.; Rempel, Allan; Richards, Michael; Straathof, Dan; Devine, Dana V. (2002). "Brief communication: Molecular analysis of the Kwäday Dän Ts'finchi ancient remains found in a glacier in Canada". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 119 (3): 288–291. doi:10.1002/ajpa.10116. ISSN 00029483. 
  16. Morley, By Sarah. "Experts Find Rare Romani DNA In Norwich Anglo Saxon Skeleton". Experts Find Rare Romani DNA In Norwich Anglo Saxon Skeleton | Culture24. N.p., 2016. Web. 15 Nov. 2016.
  17. Bryson, George. "DNA Tracks Ancient Alaskan's Descendants". Alaska Dispatch News. Alice Rogoff. Published December 29, 2008. Web. 15 Nov. 2016.
  18. Dissing, Jørgen; Binladen, Jonas; Hansen, Anders; Sejrsen, Birgitte; Willerslev, Eske; Lynnerup, Niels (2007). "The last Viking King: A royal maternity case solved by ancient DNA analysis". Forensic Science International 166 (1): 21–27. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2006.03.020. ISSN 03790738.