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Neanderthal DNA

From ISOGG Wiki

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Homo neanderthalensis

Neanderthal skulls were first discovered in Engis, Belgium, in 1829, but derive their name from the Neander Valley in Germany, the site of a later find in 1856. For many years, the debate has raged as to whether Neanderthals are a predecessor to modern humans.

Mitochondrial DNA extracted from ancient Neanderthal remains have been typed and found to differ significantly from human mitochondrial DNA.[1] While the results do not indicate a common ancestry, a team of scientists in Germany have recovered and sequenced Y-chromosome DNA from a 49,000 year-old Neanderthal. The team estimates that Homo sapiens sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis may have shared a common ancestor in the Homo genus several hundred thousand years ago.[2][3]

The following seven Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA sequences are found in GENBANK under 'homo sapiens neanderthalensis' and have been converted by Ian Logan.[4]

HVR1 Haplotype
AF254446 T16086C G16129A A16139T C16148T G16156A C16169T A16182. A16183. T16189C 16193.C 16193.C T16209C C16223T A16230G C16234T G16244A C16256A C16262T 16263.A C16278T A16299G T16311C C16320T C16344T T16362C
AF011222 A16037G A16078G T16093C C16107T C16108T C16111T C16112T G16129A A16139T C16148T T16154C C16169T A16183. T16189C 16193.C T16209C C16223T A16230G C16234T G16244A C16256A A16258G C16262T 16263.A C16278T A16299G T16311C C16320T T16362C C16400T
AF282971 A16037G A16078G G16129A A16139T C16148T T16154C C16169T A16182. A16183. T16189C 16193.C 16193.C T16209C C16223T A16230G C16234T G16244A C16256A A16258G C16262T 16263.A C16278T A16299G T16311C C16320T T16362C
AY149291 A16037G A16078G G16129A A16139T C16148T T16154C C16169T A16182. A16183. T16189C 16193.C 16193.C T16209C C16223T A16230G C16234T G16244A C16256A C16262T 16263.A C16278T A16299G T16311C C16320T T16362C
DQ464008 (Belgium) C16223T A16230G C16234T T16243C G16244A C16256A C16262T 16263.A C16266T C16278T C16291T A16299G T16311C C16320T
HVR2 Haplotype
AF282972 A73G T146C C150T T152C A189G A200G A243G T245C G247A C262T A263G 304.T C338T
AF142095 A73G T146C C150T T152C A189G A243G T245C G247A C262T A263G 307.T 307.T 307.T T391C

See also

References

  1. Ovchinnikov I, Goodwin W. "The isolation and identification of Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA." Profiles in DNA 2001, 4, 2: 7-9
  2. Gitlin, Jonathan M. "Neanderthal DNA Sequenced." Ars Technica. N.p., 16 May 2006. Web. 20 Nov. 2016.
  3. "Neanderthal Yields Nuclear DNA." BBC News. BBC, 16 May 2006. Web. 20 Nov. 2016.
  4. The purpose of the "Neanderthal DNA" page is to provide a compilation of DNA results of ancient homo neanderthalensis for comparison and educational purposes only. The HVR1 region spans 16024 -16383 and HVR2 is 57-372.