Y-DNA Haplogroup G and its Subclades
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 16 October 2006

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification.

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SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2005 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private

G   M201
�       G*   -
�       G1   M285, M342
�      �       G1*   -
�      �       G1a   P20
�       G2   P15
�      �       G2*   -
�      �       G2a   P16
�      �       �       G2a*   -
�      �       �       G2a1   P17, P18
�      �       G2b   M286
�       G3   M287
�       G4   Information not yet available
�       G5   M377

Y-DNA haplogroup G is primarily a Middle Eastern, Caucasus Region, and Mediterranean haplogroup that occurs in northwestern Europe in only about 2% of males. The frequency is higher in southern Europe, amounting to approximately 8-10% of the population in Spain, Italy, Greece, and Turkey. Haplogroup G occurs most frequently in the Caucasus region where half of North Ossetian males are in G, as are about 30% of Georgians.

The small numbers of haplogroup G in northwest Europe likely arrived there in part with the Neolithic expansion of agriculture and in part with episodic migrations within the last few thousand years. Some likely arrived with the Roman occupation. The relative contribution of these different sources is controversial, but the relative contribution probably varies in importance from place to place.

Haplogroup G has two primary sub-haplogroups, G1 and G2. By far, the most common sub-group in western Europe is G2. G1 occurs almost an order of magnitude less frequently than G2 in western Europe. A significant fraction of European G1�s are Ashkenazi Jews. Among Ashkenazi Jews, about 10% are in haplogroup G, including about 8% in G1 and 2% in G2. Haplogroups G3 and G5 have been reported for only single individuals from Turkey and Pakistan, respectively. G4 was mentioned in the article that announced G5, but has not yet been described.

The founder of haplogroup G is thought to have lived about 30,000 years ago along the eastern edge of the Middle East, perhaps as far east as the Himalayan foothills in Pakistan or India. A small number of haplogroup G people went eastward and on into Southeast Asia, south China and the Pacific Islands, but most spread over the Middle Eastern area and up into the Caucasus.


Alonso et al, The Place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Behar et al, Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Nasidze et al, Genetic Evidence Concerning the Origins of the South and North Ossetians. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 68:588-599, 2004.
Nasidze et al, MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 69:401-412, 2005.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Valone et al, Y SNP Typing of African-American and Caucasian Samples Using Allele-Specific Hybridization and Primer Extension. (pdf) Journal of Forensic Science, 49:4, July 2004.

Additional Resources:
Whit Athey, Resource for Haplogroup G
Ray Banks, Haplogroup G
Peter Christy, DNA Haplogroup G Project
Dennis Garvey, Discussion on G
Brian D. Hamman,
Y-str Haplotypes for G Subclades

Corrections/Additions made since 10 April 2006:

Contact People for Haplogroup G: Phil Goff or Whit Athey

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