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|CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS: Added Renamed|
|SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2005 tree Confirmed within subclade Provisional Private|
• G* -
• G1 M285, M342
• • G1* -
• • G1a P20
• G2 P15
• • G2* -
• • G2a P16
• • • G2a* -
• • • G2a1 P17, P18
• • G2b M286
• G3 M287
• G4 Information not yet available
• G5 M377
Y-DNA haplogroup G is primarily a Middle Eastern, Caucasus Region, and Mediterranean haplogroup that occurs in northwestern Europe in only about 2% of males. The frequency is higher in southern Europe, amounting to approximately 8-10% of the population in Spain, Italy, Greece, and Turkey. Haplogroup G occurs most frequently in the Caucasus region where half of North Ossetian males are in G, as are about 30% of Georgians.
The small numbers of haplogroup G in northwest Europe likely arrived there in part with the Neolithic expansion of agriculture and in part with episodic migrations within the last few thousand years. Some likely arrived with the Roman occupation. The relative contribution of these different sources is controversial, but the relative contribution probably varies in importance from place to place.
Haplogroup G has two primary sub-haplogroups, G1 and G2. By far, the most common sub-group in western Europe is G2. G1 occurs almost an order of magnitude less frequently than G2 in western Europe. A significant fraction of European G1’s are Ashkenazi Jews. Among Ashkenazi Jews, about 10% are in haplogroup G, including about 8% in G1 and 2% in G2. Haplogroups G3 and G5 have been reported for only single individuals from Turkey and Pakistan, respectively. G4 was mentioned in the article that announced G5, but has not yet been described.
The founder of haplogroup G is thought to have lived about 30,000 years ago along the eastern edge of the Middle East, perhaps as far east as the Himalayan foothills in Pakistan or India. A small number of haplogroup G people went eastward and on into Southeast Asia, south China and the Pacific Islands, but most spread over the Middle Eastern area and up into the Caucasus.
References:Alonso et al, The Place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Whit Athey, Resource for Haplogroup G
Ray Banks, Haplogroup G
Peter Christy, DNA Haplogroup G Project
Dennis Garvey, Discussion on G
Brian D. Hamman, Y-str Haplotypes for G Subclades
Corrections/Additions made since 10 April 2006:
Contact People for Haplogroup G: Phil Goff or Whit Athey
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