Y-DNA Haplogroup K and its Subclades
The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the
Main Page. Directions for citing the document are given at
the bottom of the Main
Version History Last
revision date for this specific page: 16 October 2006
Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG
does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments
in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email
Alice Fairhurst if the differences need
K1a SRY9138 (M177)
M184, M193, M272
Note on 50f2/C:
The 50f2/C deletion in the AZFc region of the human Y chromosome has been observed in several
different haplogroups and is not a unique event polymorphism. It is notable, however, that it
has been detected at relatively high levels in sugroups of K in Melanesia - K* (21%), K6 (14%)
and K7 (5%).
Note on P57 and P61
P57 and P61 cannot be placed on the tree until their status relative to M254 and M226 is known.
Y-DNA haplogroup K is an old lineage whose origins were probably in southwestern
Asia. At present this group contains two distinct classes of sub-groups: (1) major groups L to R
(refer to the main tree at Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree
and (2) minor groups K* and K1 to K7 which do not have any of the SNPs defining
the major groups. These groups are found at low frequencies in various parts
of Africa, Eurasia, Australia and the South Pacific.
K1 is found at low frequencies in Fiji and the Solomon Islands.
K2 is found at low frequencies
throughout Europe and in parts of the Middle East, North Africa, and West Africa.
A famous person of the K2 subclade was Thomas Jefferson, the third President
of the United States (1801-09).
K5 is a major haplogroup in the highlands of mainland Papua New Guinea where it is found at
frequencies of around 50% in some populations and is also present at lower frequencies in
adjacent islands of Indonesia and Melanesia.
Alonso et al,
The Place of the Basques in the European
Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of
Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Cinnioglu et al,
Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cox M P & Lahr M M,
Y-Chromosome Diversity Is Inversely Associated with Language Affiliation in Paired
Austronesian- and Papuan-Speaking Communities from Solomon Islands. (pdf)
American Journal of Human Biology, 18:35-50, 2006.
Cruciani et al,
A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported
by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. (pdf)
American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Deng et al, Evolution
and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence.
(pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Flores et al,
Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome
Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (available by subscription)
European Journal of Human Genetics,
Peopling of Sahul: Evidence from mtDNA and Y-Chromosome.
Thesis (M.SC.) University of Tartu, Estonia, 2006.
Kayser et al,
Independent Histories of Human Y Chromosomes from Melanesia and Australia.
American Journal of Human Genetics, 68:173-190, 2001.
Kayser et al,
Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y-Chromosome Gradients across
the Pacific. MBE Advance Access published August 21, 2006.
Kayser et al.
Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochrondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New
Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
Kivisild et al,
The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste
Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Regueiro et al,
Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract)
Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Scheinfeldt et al,
Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. (Link and comments from
Dienekes' Anthropological Blog) Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.
Semino et al,
Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf)
American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Sengupta et al,
Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India
Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence
of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf)
American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction
of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome
and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Su et al,
Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia
during the Last Ice Age. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Thangaraj et al,
Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population. (pdf)
Current Biology, 13:86-93, 2003.
Gareth Henson, The Y-DNA Haplogroup K2 Project
Corrections/Additions made since 10 April 2006:
- In References: added Scheinfeldt et al (2006) on 10 June 2006.
- Added K6-P79 and K6-P117 as confirmed; changed K3 to private and K4 to provisional
and amended the group discription to read "K1 to K7" instead of "K1 to K5" on 10 June 2006.
- Added the note on 50f2/C on 12 June 2006.
- Added Regueiro et al (2006) on 6 July 2006.
- Added Cox & Lahr (2006) on 6 July 2006.
- Added Kayser et al (2006) on 9 October 2006.
- Added at K1 M353 and M387; Added at K5a M254 and at K5a1 M226 on 9 October 2006.
- Added note about P57 (removed from K5a) and P61 (removed from K5b) on 9 October 2006.
- Corrected spelling of Transcontinental on Regueiro et al (2006); added page numbers
on 9 October 2006.
- Added comment to Scheinfeldt et al (2006) on 9 October 2006.
- Added Kayser et al (2003), Kayser et al (2006) and Hudjashov (2006) on 9 October 2006.
- Added Henson in Additional Resources on 16 October 2006.
Contact Person for Haplogroup K: