Y-DNA Haplogroup K and its Subclades
The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the Main Page.   Directions for citing the document are given at the bottom of the Main Page.
Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 16 October 2006

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2005 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private

K   M9
�       K*   -
�       K1    M353, M387
�      �       K1*   -
�      �       K1a   SRY9138 (M177)
�       K2   M70, M184, M193, M272
�      �       K2*   -
�      �       K2a   M320
�       K3   M147
�       K4   P60
�       K5   M230
�      �       K5*   -
�      �       K5a   M254
�      �       �       K5a*   -
�      �       �       K5a1   M226
�       K6   P79 (added)
�       K7   P117 (added)

Note on 50f2/C:
The 50f2/C deletion in the AZFc region of the human Y chromosome has been observed in several different haplogroups and is not a unique event polymorphism. It is notable, however, that it has been detected at relatively high levels in sugroups of K in Melanesia - K* (21%), K6 (14%) and K7 (5%).
Note on P57 and P61
P57 and P61 cannot be placed on the tree until their status relative to M254 and M226 is known.

Y-DNA haplogroup K is an old lineage whose origins were probably in southwestern Asia. At present this group contains two distinct classes of sub-groups: (1) major groups L to R (refer to the main tree at Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree and (2) minor groups K* and K1 to K7 which do not have any of the SNPs defining the major groups. These groups are found at low frequencies in various parts of Africa, Eurasia, Australia and the South Pacific.
K1 is found at low frequencies in Fiji and the Solomon Islands.
K2 is found at low frequencies throughout Europe and in parts of the Middle East, North Africa, and West Africa. A famous person of the K2 subclade was Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States (1801-09).
K5 is a major haplogroup in the highlands of mainland Papua New Guinea where it is found at frequencies of around 50% in some populations and is also present at lower frequencies in adjacent islands of Indonesia and Melanesia.


Alonso et al, The Place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cox M P & Lahr M M, Y-Chromosome Diversity Is Inversely Associated with Language Affiliation in Paired Austronesian- and Papuan-Speaking Communities from Solomon Islands. (pdf) American Journal of Human Biology, 18:35-50, 2006.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
Hudjashov G, Peopling of Sahul: Evidence from mtDNA and Y-Chromosome. Thesis (M.SC.) University of Tartu, Estonia, 2006.
Kayser et al, Independent Histories of Human Y Chromosomes from Melanesia and Australia. American Journal of Human Genetics, 68:173-190, 2001.
Kayser et al, Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y-Chromosome Gradients across the Pacific. MBE Advance Access published August 21, 2006.
Kayser et al. Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochrondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Scheinfeldt et al, Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. (Link and comments from Dienekes' Anthropological Blog) Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Su et al, Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Thangaraj et al, Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population. (pdf) Current Biology, 13:86-93, 2003.

Additional Resources:
Gareth Henson, The Y-DNA Haplogroup K2 Project

Corrections/Additions made since 10 April 2006:

Contact Person for Haplogroup K: Gareth Henson

Back to Main Page
Back to Y-DNA Tree Trunk
Back to SNP Index
Back to Papers Cited
Back to Glossary
Back to Listing Criteria

Copyright 2006, International Society of Genetic Genealogy. All Rights Reserved.