Y-DNA Haplogroup L and its Subclades
The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the
Main Page. Directions for citing the document are given at
the bottom of the Main
Version History Last
revision date for this specific page: 16 October 2006
Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG
does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments
in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email
Alice Fairhurst if the differences need
L M11, M20, M22, M61, M185,
L1 M27, M76
(added) (formerly private and L4)
Y-DNA haplogroup L is found primarily as sub-group L1 in India and Sri Lanka.
Sub-group L3 is found mainly in Pakistan. Haplogroup L can also be found at
low frequencies in the Middle East and in Europe along the Mediterranean coast.
Behar et al,
Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host
Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Cinnioglu et al,
Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al,
A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported
by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. (pdf)
American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Deng et al, Evolution
and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence.
(pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Karafet et al,
Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns,
and Microevolutionary Processes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics,
Kivisild et al,
The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste
Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Kivisild et al,
The Role of Selection in the Evolution of Human Mitochondrial Genomes.
Genetics 172: 373-387.2006.
Mohyuddin et al,
Detection of novel Y SNPs Provides Further Insights into Y chromosomal Variation in Pakistan.
Journal of Human Genetics, 2006.
Regueiro et al,
Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract)
Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Sengupta et al,
Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India
Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence
of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf)
American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction
of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome
and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Thangaraj et al,
Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population. (pdf)
Current Biology, 13:86-93, 2003.
Gareth Henson, The Y-Haplogroup L Project
Corrections/Additions made since 10 April 2006:
- Added Regueiro et al (2006) on 6 July 2006.
- Added provisional M274 at L2b; changed from private to provisional M349 and moved
from L4 to L2a on 6 July 2006.
- Changed M274 to L2a and M349 to L2b on 7 July 2006.
- Corrected spelling of Transcontinental on Regueiro et al (2006); added page numbers
on 9 October 2006.
- Added Henson to Additional Resources on 16 October 2006.
Contact Person for Haplogroup L: