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|CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS: Added Renamed|
|SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2006 tree Confirmed within subclade Provisional Private|
G M201, U2, U3, U6, U7, U12, U17
• G* -
• G1 M285, M342
• • G1* -
• • G1a P20
• G2 P15, U5
• • G2* -
• • G2a P16
• • • G2a* -
• • • G2a1 P17, P18
• • G2b M286
• • G2c U8
• • • G2c* -
• • • G2c1 U16
• • • G2c2 U1
• • • • G2c2* -
• • • • G2c2a U13
• G3 M287
• G4 Information not yet available
• G5 M377
Y-DNA haplogroup G is primarily a Middle Eastern, Caucasus Region, and Mediterranean haplogroup that occurs in northwestern Europe in only about 2% of males. The frequency is higher in southern Europe, amounting to approximately 8-10% of the population in Spain, Italy, Greece, and Turkey. Haplogroup G occurs most frequently in the Caucasus region where half of North Ossetian males are in G, as are about 30% of Georgians and Azerbaijanis.
The small numbers of haplogroup G in northwest Europe likely arrived there in part with the Neolithic expansion of agriculture and in part with episodic migrations within the last few thousand years. Some likely arrived with the Roman occupation. The relative contribution of these different sources is controversial, but the relative contribution probably varies in importance from place to place.
Haplogroup G has three primary sub-haplogroups, G1, G2, and G5. By far, the most common sub-group in western Europe is G2. Haplogroup G2 has been resolved into several subgroups, the largest of which is G2c-U8. Sub-groups G1 and G5 occur at almost an order of magnitude less frequently than G2 in western Europe. G1 is common in Iran (Regueiro, 2006), but uncommon in Europe. A large majority of European G5’s are Ashkenazi Jews, but so far G5 has been tested in only a small number of people in the Middle East and South Asia. Among Ashkenazi Jews overall, about 10% are in haplogroup G, including about 8% in G5 and 2% in G2, along with small numbers in G1. About 20% of Moroccan Jews are in Haplogroup G. Other groups with a significant G frequency include Catalan-speaking northern Sardinians and the Druze, who are about 18% G2. About one-third of Haplogroup G in Iran is in sub-group G1. Haplogroup G3 has only been reported for a single individual from Turkey (Cinnioglu, 2004). G4 was mentioned in the article that announced G5, but has not yet been described.
The founder of haplogroup G is thought to have lived about 30,000 years ago, probably in the northern part of the Middle East.
References:Alonso et al, The Place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Whit Athey, Resource for Haplogroup G
Ray Banks, Haplogroup G
Peter Christy, DNA Haplogroup G Project
Dennis Garvey, Discussion on G
Dennis Garvey, G SNP Project
Brian D. Hamman, Y-str Haplotypes for G Subclades
Corrections/Additions made since 20 December 2006:
Contact People for Haplogroup G: Phil Goff or Whit Athey
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