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|CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS: Added Renamed|
|SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2006 tree Confirmed within subclade Provisional Private|
N LLY22g, M231
� N* -
� N1 M128
� N2 P43
� � N2* -
� � N2a P63
� N3 M46/Tat
� � N3* -
� � N3a M178
� � � N3a* -
� � � N3a1 P21
Y-DNA haplogroup N is found throughout Northern Eurasia. Possible points of origin include Northern China and Mongolia, from which the population spread both toward the Baltic region and into Siberia. The dominant N3 branch is found widely distributed in Siberia and in northern Europe. At its western extent, the greatest concentration is found among Finns, Latvians and Lithuanians. The N2 branch, whose geography is largely contained within the larger N3 range, shows two clusters, one in the Ural-Volga area and the other further east. The less common N1 lineage shows a scattered distribution in Asia, with small concentrations in areas of Kazakhstan, Korea and China. The undifferentiated N* population is widely distributed at low levels of occurrence with a weak concentration in Cambodia and southern China. Haplogroup N has also been found at very low concentration in eastern Europe and in Anatolia.
Behar et al,
Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host
Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Capelli et al, Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 2005.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
Hammer et al, Dual Origins of the Japanese: Common Ground for Hunter-gatherer and Farmer Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Journal of Human Genetics, 51:47-58, 2006.
Karlsson et al, Y-chromosome Diversity in Sweden - A Long-time Perspective. European Journal of Human Genetics, 1-8, 2006. (Comments on paper from Dienekes' Anthropological Blog - fee for paper from www.nature.com/ejhg) Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Rootsi et al., A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe. European Journal of Human Genetics. 15: 204-211,01 Feb 2007.
Rootsi S, Human Y Chromosomal Variations in European Populations (dissertation) Council of the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Oct 2004.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Robert Andersen, N Y-DNA Haplogroup Project
Corrections/Additions made since 20 December 2006:
Contact Person for Haplogroup N: David Wilson
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