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|CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS: Added Renamed|
|SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2006 tree Confirmed within subclade Provisional Private|
R M207/UTY2, M306/S1,
S4, S8, S9
� R* -
� R1 M173
� � R1* -
� � R1a SRY1532.2/SRY10831.2
� � � R1a* -
� � � R1a1 M17, M198
� � � � R1a1* -
� � � � R1a1a M56
� � � � R1a1b M157
� � � � R1a1c M64.2, M87, M204
� � R1b M343
� � � R1b* -
� � � R1b1 P25
� � � � R1b1* -
� � � � R1b1a M18
� � � � R1b1b M73
� � � � R1b1c M269, S3, S10, S13, S17
� � � � � R1b1c* -
� � � � � R1b1c1 M37
� � � � � R1b1c2 M65
� � � � � R1b1c3 M126
� � � � � R1b1c4 M153
� � � � � R1b1c5 M160
� � � � � R1b1c6 M167/SRY2627
� � � � � R1b1c7 M222/USP9Y+3636
� � � � � R1b1c8 P66
� � � � � R1b1c9 M405/S21/U106
� � � � � � R1b1c9* -
� � � � � � R1b1c9a DYS439/L1/S26
� � � � � � R1b1c9b M467/S29/U198
� � � � � R1b1c10 S28/U152
� � � � � R1b1c11 S68
� � � � R1b1d M335
� R2 M124
PK5 within R1a1; P107 within R1b1c; S50 within R1b1c; S69 within R1b1c9; S44 within R1b1c10;
Y-DNA haplogroup R is mainly represented in two lineages. Lineage R1a is thought to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black and Caspian Seas. It is associated with the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (approximately 3000 B.C.E.). This lineage is currently found in central and western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Eastern Europe. A well-known individual of the R1a lineage is Somerled founder of Clan Donald. Lineage R1b originated prior to the end of the last ice age where it was concentrated in refugia in southern Europe and Iberia and is the most common in European populations. It is especially common in the west of Ireland where it approaches 100% of the population. This haplogroup contains the Atlantic modal STR haplotype.
Adams et al,
The Case of the Unreliable SNP: Recurrent Back-mutation of Y-chromosomal Marker P25 Through
Gene Conversion. (abstract) Forensic Science International 159:14-20, 2006.
Alonso et al, The Place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Behar et al, Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Capelli et al, Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 2005.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics, 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
Karafet et al, Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 69:615-628, 2001.
Karlsson et al, Y-chromosome Diversity in Sweden - A Long-time Perspective. European Journal of Human Genetics, 1-8, 2006. (Comments on paper from Dienekes' Anthropological Blog - fee for paper from www.nature.com/ejhg) Kayser et al. Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochrondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
McEvoy et al, Y-chromosomes and the Extent of Patrilineal Ancestry in Irish Surnames (abstract) Human Genetics 2006 Jan 12;:1-8 (Epub ahead of print).
Mohyuddin et al, Detection of Novel Y SNPs Provides Further Insights into Y Chromosomal Variation in Pakistan. Journal of Human Genetics, 2006.
Myers et al, (2007), Y-chromosome Short Tandem Repeat DYS458.2 Non-concensus Alleles Occur Independently in Both Binary Haplogroups J1-M267 and R1b3-M405. Croatian Medical Journal, 48, 2007.
Nasidze et al, MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 69:401-412, 2005.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Semino et al, The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo Sapiens Sapiens in Extant Europeans. (pdf) Science, V290:1155-1159, 2000.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (available by subscription) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Sims et al, Sub-Populations Within the Major European and African Derived Haplogroups R1b3 and E3a Are Differentiated by Previously Phylogenetically Undefined Y-SNPs. Human Mutation: Mutation in Brief #940, Online, 2007.
Su et al, Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Valone et al, Y SNP Typing of African-American and Caucasian Samples Using Allele-Specific Hybridization and Primer Extension. (pdf) Journal of Forensic Science, 49:4, July 2004.
Wells et al, The Eurasian Heartland: A Continental Perspective on Y-chromosome Diversity. PNAS, Vol. 98; 18:10244-10249, 2001.
A. A. Foster,
Variations of R1b Ydna in Europe: Distribution and Origins
Dennis Garvey, Discussion on R1a
Dennis Garvey, Discussion on R1b
Proofer Joan, Major R1b Haplotypes in YHRD
Charles Kerchner, R1b and Subclades YDNA Haplogroup Project
John McEwan, Dal Riadic Migration Y Chromosome DNA Genealogy Page
Edward McKee, Y-DNA R1b1c7
National Geographic Genographic Project, Information on R1a
Cyndi Rutledge, R1a and Subclades YDNA Haplogroup Project
Ron Scott, R1a and R1b-R2: Frequency Distribution of Extended Haplotypes Gathered from YSearch
Sean Silver, The Jewish R1b Project
Vincent Vizachero, R1b Haplogroup Distribution Maps
David Wilson, The Northwest Irish Variety of Y-DNA Haplogroup R
Corrections/Additions made since 20 December 2006:
Contact person for Haplogroup R: John McEwan
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