Y-DNA Haplogroup F and its Subclades - 2008
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 20 October 2008

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS:  Added  Redefined 
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2007 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private

F   M89, M213/P137, M235, P14, P133, P134, P135, P136, P138, P139, P140, P141, P142. P145, P146, P148, P149, P151, P157, P158, P159, P160, P161, P163, P166, P187
•       F*   -
•       F1   P91, P104
•       F2   M427, M428
•       F3   P96
•       F4   P254
•       G    M201, P257, U2, U3, U6, U7, U12, U17, U20, U21, U23, U33
•       H   M69
•       IJK    L15/S137, L16/S138
•      •       IJ   M429, P123, P124, P125, P126, P127, P129, P130, S2, S22
•      •       •       I   M170, M258, P19, P38, P212, U179
•      •       •       J    12f2.1, M304, P209, S6, S34, S35
•      •       K   M9, P128, P131, P132

NOTES:

Y-DNA haplogroup F is the parent of all Y-DNA haplogroups G through T and contains more than 90% of the world’s population. Haplogroup F was in the original migration out of Africa, or else it was founded soon afterward, because F and its sub-haplogroups are primarily found outside, with very few inside, sub-Saharan Africa. The founder of F could have lived between 60,000 and 80,000 years ago, depending on the time of the out-of-Africa migration.

The major sub-groups of Haplogroup F are Haplogroups G, H, [IJ], and K, which are discussed elsewhere at this site. The minor sub-groups, F*, F1, and F2 have not been well studied, but apparently occur only infrequently and primarily in the Indian subcontinent. F* has been observed in two individuals in Portugal, possibly representing a remnant of 15th and 16th century contact of Portugal with India.

References:

Alonso et al, The Place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Behar et al, Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host Non-Jewish European populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (pdf) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Kayser et al. Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Nasidze et al, MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 69:401-412, 2005.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Su et al, Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Underhill et al, New Phylogenetic Relationships for Y-chromosome Haplogroup I: Reappraising its Phylogeography and Prehistory. in Rethinking the Human Evolution, Mellars P, Boyle K, Bar-Yosef O, Stringer C, Eds. McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, UK, pp. 33-42, 2007b.
Underhill et al, Use of Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Population Structure in Tracing Human Migrations. (abstract) Annual Review Genetics, 41:539-564, December 1, 2007(a).

Corrections/Additions made since 31 December 2007:

Contact Person for Haplogroup F: Whit Athey

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