Y-DNA Haplogroup G and its Subclades - 2008
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Version History Last
revision date for this specific page: 24 December 2008
Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG
does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments
in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email
Alice Fairhurst if the differences need
G M201, P257,
U2, U3, U6, U7, U12, U17, U20, U21, U23, U33
G1 M285, M342
G2a P15, U5 (formerly G2)
G2a1 P16 (formerly G2a)
G2a1a P18 (formerly G2a1)
G2a2 M286 (formerly G2b)
G2a3 U8, S126/L30 (formerly G2c)
G2a3a M406 (formerly G2a3b)
� � �
� � �
G2a3a1 U16, L14/S130, S133 (formerly G2c1, G2a3b2, then G2a3b1)
G2a3b P303 (formerly G2a3c)
� � �
G2a3b1 U1, S135 (formerly G2c2, then G2a3a)
G2a3b1a U13, L13/S131 (formerly G2c2a, then G2a3a1)
G2a3b2 S146, S147 (formerly G2a3c1)
G2a4 L32/S148 (confirmed within G2a, but exact location unknown)
G2a5 L31/S149 (confirmed within G2a, but exact location unknown)
G2b M287 (formerly G3)
G2c M377 (formerly G5)
- The U SNPs were reported on the ISOGG 2007 tree, but did not appear
in the Karafet et al (2008) paper. This tree integrates the two different trees.
- Thanks to Dennis Garvey for his consultation on Haplogroup G.
- Identical SNPs that were discovered separately are listed in alphabetical order, not necessarily in
the order of discovery, and separated by "/". Examples: L14/S130.
- P17 has been withdrawn by discoverer.
Y-DNA haplogroup G is primarily a Middle Eastern, Caucasus Region, and Mediterranean haplogroup
that occurs in northwestern Europe in only about 2% of males. The frequency is higher in
southern Europe, amounting to approximately 8-10% of the population in Spain, Italy, Greece,
and Turkey. Haplogroup G occurs most frequently in the Caucasus region where half of North
Ossetian males are in G, as are about 30% of Georgians and Azerbaijanis.
The small numbers of haplogroup G in northwest Europe likely arrived there in part with the
Neolithic expansion of agriculture and in part with episodic migrations within the last few
thousand years. Some likely arrived with the Roman occupation. The relative contribution of
these different sources is controversial, but the relative contribution probably varies in
importance from place to place.
By far, the most common sub-group in
western Europe is G2a. Haplogroup G2a has been resolved into several subgroups, the largest of
which is G2a3-U8. Sub-groups G1 and G2c occur at almost an order of magnitude less frequently
than G2a in western Europe. G1 is common in Iran (Regueiro, 2006), but uncommon in Europe. A
large majority of European G2c�s are Ashkenazi Jews, but so far G2c has been tested in only a
small number of people in the Middle East and South Asia. Among Ashkenazi Jews overall, about
10% are in haplogroup G, including about 8% in G2c and 2% in G2a, along with small numbers in
G1. About 20% of Moroccan Jews are in Haplogroup G. Other groups with a significant G frequency
include Catalan-speaking northern Sardinians and the Druze, who are about 18% G2a. About one-third
of Haplogroup G in Iran is in sub-group G1.
The founder of haplogroup G is thought to have lived about 30,000 years ago, probably in the northern part
of the Middle East.
Alonso et al,
The Place of the Basques in the European
Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of
Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Athey et al,
Y-SNP rs34134567 Defines a Large Subgroup of Haplogroup G2a-P15. (pdf)
Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 4(2):149-150, 2008.
Behar et al,
Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host
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Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
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A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported
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American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Karafet et al,
New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup
Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008.
King et al,
Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic. (abstract)
Annals of Human Genetics. 72:205�214. 2008.
Kivisild et al,
The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste
Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Nasidze et al,
Genetic Evidence Concerning the Origins of the South and North Ossetians. (pdf)
Annals of Human Genetics, 68:588-599, 2004.
Nasidze et al,
MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics,
Regueiro et al,
Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract)
Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Semino et al,
Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf)
American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
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Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence
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Y SNP Typing of African-American and Caucasian Samples Using Allele-Specific
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Y Chromosome Diversity in Lebanon is Structured by Recent Historical Events. (abstract)
The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 82, Issue 4, 873-882, 28 March 2008.
Whit Athey, Resource for Haplogroup
Ray Banks, Haplogroup G
Peter Christy, DNA Haplogroup G Project
Discussion on G
G SNP Project
Brian D. Hamman, Y-str Haplotypes for
Corrections/Additions made since 31 December 2007:
- Added Karafet et al (2008) on 4 May 2008.
- SNPs added on 4 May 2008: M406, P76, P257, P287, U20, U21, U23, U33.
- Added subclade G2a3d; SNP known only by rs34134567 on 5 May 2008.
- Changed rs34134567 to S126 on 11 May 2008.
- Note associated with M406 that said location beneath P15 is uncertain was deleted on 8 August 2008 because the location has been confirmed.
- Note associated with S126 formerly said location beneath P15 is uncertain was changed to location beneath U8 is uncertainon 8 August 2008.
- SNPs L14, S130 and M283 added on 8 August 2008.
- Arrangements of snps downstream of G2a3 changed on 9 September 2008.
- Arrangements of snps downstream of G2a3 plus new snps added on 26 September 2008.
- Simplified notation associated with G2a3 on 20 October 2008.
- Added L30, L31, L32, P303, S146, S147, S148, and S149 on 6 November 2008.
- Corrected notes on G2a4, G2a5, and G2a6 on 10 November 2008.
- Changed subclades for P303, S146, S147, L32/S148, and L31/S149 on 7 December 2008.
- Changed subclades for L13/S131, L14/S130, M406, P303, S133, S135, S146, S147, U1, U13, U16 on 10 December 2008.
- P17 has been removed from G2a1a because of withdrawal by discoverer on 21 December 2008.
- Added Athey et al (2008) on 24 December 2008.
Contact People for Haplogroup G: Phil Goff or