Y-DNA Haplogroup H and its Subclades - 2008
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 21 December 2008

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS:  Added  Redefined 
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2007 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private

H   M69, M370
       H*   -
       H1   M52
             H1*   -
             H1a   M82
                    H1a*   -
                    H1a1   M36, M197
                    H1a2   M97
                    H1a3   M39, M138
       H2   Apt
             H2*   -
             H2a   P80, P314
             H2b   P266

Y-DNA haplogroup H: The founding mutation for haplogroup H, M69, occurred in a haplogroup F man, probably in the Indian subcontinent The founder of haplogroup H probably lived about 30,000-40,000 years ago. This haplogroup has not yet been studied in a comprehensive manner. Today, nearly all members of haplogroup H live in the Indian subcontinent area. The Roma (also known as Gypsy) people, who apparently originated in India, are the main source of haplogroup H in western Europe.

References:

Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.

Additional Resources:
Donald Locke, H Haplogroup Project
World Families Network, Links to Y-Chromosome Haplogroup Reference Material.

Corrections/Additions made since 31 December 2007:

Contact People for Haplogroup H: Phil Goff or Whit Athey

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