Y-DNA Haplogroup I and its Subclades - 2008
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Version History Last
revision date for this specific page: 25 December 2008
Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG
does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments
in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email
Alice Fairhurst if the differences need
I M170, M258, P19,
P38, P212, U179 (P38 formerly I1)
I* - (unobserved)
I1 M253, M307,
M450/S109, P30, P40,
S62, S63, S64, S65, S66, S107, S108, S110, S111
(formerly I1a2) (probably private)
I1b M227 (formerly
(formerly I1d) (probably private, location with respect to L22/S142 is uncertain)
(probably private, confirmed within I1, but exact location is uncertain)
I2 L68, M438/P215/S31,
(not on Karafet 2008)
P217/S23, P218/S32 (formerly I1b2)
I2b1 M223, P219/S24,
(formerly I1b2a - old I1c)
I2b2 L38/S154, L39/S155, L40/S156, L65/S159
- The tree has been revised to basically follow the structure of Karafet et al (2008) and also
consults Underhill et al (2007b).
- Identical SNPs that were discovered separately are listed in alphabetical order, not necessarily in
the order of discovery, and separated by "/". Examples: M450/S109, M438/P215, P41.2/M359.2, M436/P214/S33,
P222/U250, L38/S154, L39/S155, L40/S156, and L65/S159.
- Thanks to Ken Nordtvedt, Natalie Myres, and Jim Wilson for their consultation on Haplogroup I.
Y-DNA haplogroup I is a European haplogroup, representing nearly one-fifth of the
population. It is almost non-existent outside of Europe, suggesting that it arose in Europe.
Estimates of the age of haplogroup I suggest that it arose prior to the last Glacial Maximum.
The two main subgroups of haplogroup I likely divided approximately 28,000 years ago:
- I1-M253 et al has highest frequency in Scandinavia, Iceland, and northwest Europe.
In Britain, haplogroup I1-M253 et al is often used as a marker for "invaders," Viking
or Anglo-Saxon. The I1b-M227 subclade is concentrated in eastern Europe and the Balkans
and appears to have arisen in the last one thousand to five thousand years. It has been
reported in Germany, Czech Republic, Poland, Estonia, Ukraine, Switzerland, Slovenia,
Bosnia, Macedonia, Croatia, and Lebanon.
- I2-M438 et al includes I2* which shows some membership from Armenia, Georgia and Turkey;
I2a-P37.2, which is the most common form in the Balkans and Sardinia; I2a2-M26 is especially prevalent
in Sardinia. I2b-M436 et al reaches its highest frequency along the northwest coast of continental
Europe. I2b1-M223 et al occurs in Britain and northwest continental Europe. I2b1a-M284 occurs almost
exclusively in Britain, so it apparently originated there and has probably been present for
thousands of years.
Athey et al,
Resolving the Placement of Haplogroup I-M223 in the Y-chromosome Phylogenetic Tree. (pdf)
Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 1:54-55, 2005.
Cinnioglu et al,
Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Karafet et al,
New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup
Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008.
Rootsi et al,
Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene
Flow In Europe. American Journal of Human Genetics, 75:128-137, 2004.
Scheinfeldt et al,
Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. (Link and comments from
Dienekes' Anthropological Blog) Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.
Sims et al,
Sub-Populations Within the Major European and African Derived Haplogroups R1b3 and
E3a Are Differentiated by Previously Phylogenetically Undefined Y-SNPs.
Human Mutation: Mutation in Brief #940, Online, 2007.
Underhill et al,
New Phylogenetic Relationships for Y-chromosome Haplogroup I: Reappraising its Phylogeography and Prehistory.
in Rethinking the Human Evolution, Mellars P, Boyle K, Bar-Yosef O, Stringer C, Eds.
McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, UK, pp. 33-42, 2007b.
Underhill et al,
The Phylogeography of Y Chromosome Binary Haplotypes and the Origins of Modern Human
Populations. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 65:43-62, 2001.
Underhill et al,
Y Chromosome Sequence Variation and the History of Human Populations. (pdf) Nature Genetics, 26:
Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC),
A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups. Genome
Research, 12:339-348, 2002.
Haplogroup I Y-DNA Project
Charles Moore, Haplogroup I Subclade Cross-Reference (.xls file)
Ken Nordtvedt, Founder Haplotypes (Modal Haplotypes for Y-Haplogroup I
I1a Project Team (Rebekah Canada, Phil Goff, Aaron Hill, Ken Nordtvedt, Steve Transgrud, Samuel Theil),
Y-DNA Haplogroup I Subclade I1a
Phil Goff, Deep Ancestry of I1a DYS19=16
I1a and I1b: Frequency Distribution of Extended Haplotypes Gathered from YSearch
Tim Weakley, I1b2* Project Database
Lewis Banks, Y-Haplogroup I1b2 Project
Grant & Jeffrey,
I1c Y-Clan Study (now I1b2a)
Contact People for Haplogroup I: Phil Goff or
Corrections/Additions made since 31 December 2007:
- Added Karafet et al (2008) and Underhill et al (2007b)on 4 May 2008.
- SNPS added on 4 May 2008: M423, M436, M438, M450, P109, P212, P214, P215, P216, P217, P218, P219,
P220, P221, P222, P223, P259, S107, S108, S109, S110, S111, U250.
- M72 is no longer coded private on 5 May 2008.
- Removed Capelli et al (2005), Karlsson et al (2006) and Sengupta et al (2007) as they did not
identify new SNPs in Haplogroup I or significantly add to the knowledge of the structure of Haplogroup I
on 6 May 2008.
- Revised the relative placement on M21, M227, M423 and M26 and haplogroup description to be more in
alignment with Karafet et al (2008) on 11 May 2008.
- Added Charles Moore in Additional References and made M450/S109 as equivalent on 11 May 2008.
- Added S79 into Notes on 26 May 2008.
- Simplified note pertaining to S79 on 11 November 2008.
- Reversed definitions of subclades I2a1, I2a1a and I2a2, I2a2a on 21 December 2008.
- Added rs35547782 and rs9786274 on 21 December 2008.
- Added L22/S142 and S79 to tree on 22 December 2008.
- Changed rs35547782 to L68 on 23 December 2008.
- Added the T designation to rs9786274 on 24 December 2008.
- Added L38/S154, L39/S155, L40/S156, L65/S159 on 25 December 2008.