Y-DNA Haplogroup I and its Subclades - 2008
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 25 December 2008

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2007 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private

I   M170, M258, P19, P38, P212, U179   (P38 formerly I1)
�       I*    - (unobserved)
�      ; I1   M253, M307, M450/S109, P30, P40, S62, S63, S64, S65, S66, S107, S108, S110, S111    (formerly I1a)
�      �       I1*   -
�      �       I1a   M21    (formerly I1a2) (probably private)
�      �       I1b   M227   (formerly I1a1)
�      �       �       I1b*   -
�      �       �       I1b1   M72    (formerly I1a1a)
�      �       I1c   P259    (formerly I1d) (probably private, location with respect to L22/S142 is uncertain)
�      �       I1d   L22/S142
�      �       �       I1d*   -
�      �       �       I1d1   P109    (formerly I1c)
�      �       I1e   S79    (probably private, confirmed within I1, but exact location is uncertain)
�       I2   L68, M438/P215/S31,    (formerly I1b)
�      �       I2*   -
�      �       I2a   P37.2
�      �       �       I2a*   -
�      �       �       I2a1   M26
�      �       �      �       I2a1*   -
�      �       �      �       I2a1a   M161
�      �       �       I2a2   M423    (not on Karafet 2008)
�      �       �      �       I2a2*   -
�      �       �      �       I2a2a   P41.2/M359.2
�      �       �      �       I2a2b   rs9786274=T
�      �       I2b    M436/P214/S33, P216/S30, P217/S23, P218/S32   (formerly I1b2)
�      �       �       I2b*   -
�      �       �       I2b1   M223, P219/S24, P220/S119, P221/S120, P222/U250/S118, P223/S117    (formerly I1b2a - old I1c)
�      �       �      �       I2b1*   -
�      �       �      �       I2b1a   M284    (formerly I1b2a1)
�      �       �      �       I2b1b   M379    (formerly I1b2a2)
�      �       �      �       I2b1c   P78    (formerly I1b2a3)
�      �       �      �       I2b1d   P95    (formerly I1b2a4)
�      �       �       I2b2   L38/S154, L39/S155, L40/S156, L65/S159


Y-DNA haplogroup I is a European haplogroup, representing nearly one-fifth of the population. It is almost non-existent outside of Europe, suggesting that it arose in Europe. Estimates of the age of haplogroup I suggest that it arose prior to the last Glacial Maximum.

The two main subgroups of haplogroup I likely divided approximately 28,000 years ago:


Athey et al, Resolving the Placement of Haplogroup I-M223 in the Y-chromosome Phylogenetic Tree. (pdf) Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 1:54-55, 2005.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Rootsi et al, Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow In Europe. American Journal of Human Genetics, 75:128-137, 2004.
Scheinfeldt et al, Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. (Link and comments from Dienekes' Anthropological Blog) Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.
Sims et al, Sub-Populations Within the Major European and African Derived Haplogroups R1b3 and E3a Are Differentiated by Previously Phylogenetically Undefined Y-SNPs. Human Mutation: Mutation in Brief #940, Online, 2007.
Underhill et al, New Phylogenetic Relationships for Y-chromosome Haplogroup I: Reappraising its Phylogeography and Prehistory. in Rethinking the Human Evolution, Mellars P, Boyle K, Bar-Yosef O, Stringer C, Eds. McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, UK, pp. 33-42, 2007b.
Underhill et al, The Phylogeography of Y Chromosome Binary Haplotypes and the Origins of Modern Human Populations. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 65:43-62, 2001.
Underhill et al, Y Chromosome Sequence Variation and the History of Human Populations. (pdf) Nature Genetics, 26: 358-361, 2000.
Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC), A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups. Genome Research, 12:339-348, 2002.

Additional Resources:
Bob Waterouse, Haplogroup I Y-DNA Project
Charles Moore, Haplogroup I Subclade Cross-Reference (.xls file)
Ken Nordtvedt, Founder Haplotypes (Modal Haplotypes for Y-Haplogroup I Varieties)
I1a Project Team (Rebekah Canada, Phil Goff, Aaron Hill, Ken Nordtvedt, Steve Transgrud, Samuel Theil), Y-DNA Haplogroup I Subclade I1a
Phil Goff, Deep Ancestry of I1a DYS19=16 Cluster
Ron Scott, I1a and I1b: Frequency Distribution of Extended Haplotypes Gathered from YSearch
Tim Weakley, I1b2* Project Database
Lewis Banks, Y-Haplogroup I1b2 Project
Grant & Jeffrey, I1c Y-Clan Study (now I1b2a)

Contact People for Haplogroup I: Phil Goff or Whit Athey

Corrections/Additions made since 31 December 2007:

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