Y-DNA Haplogroup M and its Subclades - 2008
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 22 October 2008

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS:  Added  Redefined 
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2007 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private

M   P256
       M*   -
       M1   M4, M5/P73, M106, M186, M189, M296, P35   (formerly M)
             M1*   -
             M1a   P34   (formerly M1)
                   M1a*   -
                   M1a1    P51   (formerly M1a)
                    M1a2   P94
             M1b   P87   (formerly M2)
                    M1b*   -
                    M1b1   M104/P22   (formerly M2a)
                          M1b1*   -
                          M1b1a   M16   (formerly M2a1)
                          M1b1b   M83   (formerly M2a2)
       M2   M353, M387   (formerly K1)
             M2*   -
             M2a   M177/SRY9138   (formerly K1a)
       M3   P117, P118    (formerly K7)

NOTES:

Y-DNA haplogroup M reaches its known peak in Papua New Guinea, totaling one-third to two-thirds of population.

References:

Cox M P & Lahr M M, Y-Chromosome Diversity Is Inversely Associated with Language Affiliation in Paired Austronesian- and Papuan-Speaking Communities from Solomon Islands. (pdf) American Journal of Human Biology, 18:35-50, 2006.
Hudjashov G, Peopling of Sahul: Evidence from mtDNA and Y-Chromosome. Thesis (M.SC.) University of Tartu, Estonia, 2006.

Hurles et al, European Y-Chromosomal Lineages in Polynesians: A Contrast to the Population Structure Revealed by mtDNA. American Journal of Human Genetics, 63:1793-1806, 1998.
Hurles et al, Y Chromosomal Evidence for the Origins of Oceanic-Speaking Peoples. Genetics, 160:289-303, January 2002.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Kayser et al, Independent Histories of Human Y Chromosomes from Melanesia and Australia. American Journal of Human Genetics, 68:173-190, 2001.
Kayser et al, Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y-Chromosome Gradients across the Pacific. MBE Advance Access published August 21, 2006.
Kayser et al, Melanesian Origin of Polynesian Y Chromosomes. Current Biology, Vol. 10, No. 20, September 2000.
Kayser et al. Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
Mona et al, Patterns of Y-chromosome Diversity Intersect with the Trans-New Guinea Hypothesis. Mol Biol Evol. 2007 Sep 10; [Epub ahead of print]
Scheinfeldt et al, Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. (Link and comments from Dienekes' Anthropological Blog) Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.

Corrections/Additions made since 31 December 2007:

Contact Person for Haplogroup M: Phil Goff

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