Y-DNA Haplogroup R and its Subclades - 2008
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 22 December 2008

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2007 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private

R   M207/UTY2, M306/S1, P224, P227, P229, P232, P280, P285, S4, S8, S9
       R*   -
       R1   M173/P241, P225, P231, P233, P234, P236, P238, P242, P286, P294
             R1*   -
             R1a   L62, L63
                    R1a*   -
                    R1a1   SRY1532.2/SRY10831.2
                          R1a1*   -
                          R1a1a   M17, M198
                                 R1a1a*   -
                                 R1a1a1   M56
                                 R1a1a2   M157
                                 R1a1a3   M64.2, M87, M204
                                 R1a1a4   P98
                                 R1a1a5   PK5
             R1b   M343
                    R1b*   -
                    R1b1   P25
                          R1b1*   -
                          R1b1a   M18   (position relative to P297 uncertain)
                          R1b1b   P297
                                 R1b1b*   -
                                 R1b1b1   M73   
                                 R1b1b2   M269, S3, S10, S13, S17   
                                       R1b1b2*   -
                                       R1b1b2a   L23/S141, L49
                                              R1b1b2a*   -
                                              R1b1b2a1   L11/S127, L51, L52, P310/S129, P311/S128
                                                    R1b1b2a1*   -
                                                    R1b1b2a1a   M405/S21/U106
                                                           R1b1b2a1a*   -
                                                           R1b1b2a1a1   M467/S29/U198
                                                           R1b1b2a1a2   P107
                                                           R1b1b2a1a3   DYS439(null)/L1/S26
                                                           R1b1b2a1a4   L48/S162    (position relative to P107 and L1/S26 uncertain)
                                                                 R1b1b2a1a4*   -
                                                                 R1b1b2a1a4a   L44, L45, L46, L47
                                                    R1b1b2a1b   P312/S116
                                                           R1b1b2a1b*   -
                                                           R1b1b2a1b1   M65
                                                           R1b1b2a1b2   M153
                                                           R1b1b2a1b3   M167/SRY2627
                                                           R1b1b2a1b4   S28/U152
                                                                 R1b1b2a1b4*   -
                                                                 R1b1b2a1b4a   M126    (position relative to L2/S139 uncertain)
                                                                 R1b1b2a1b4b   M160    (position relative to L2/S139 uncertain)
                                                                 R1b1b2a1b4c   L2/S139
                                                                        R1b1b2a1b4c*   -
                                                                        R1b1b2a1b4c1   L20/S144
                                                           R1b1b2a1b5   S68
                                                           R1b1b2a1b6   L21/S145
                                                                 R1b1b2a1b6*   -
                                                                 R1b1b2a1b6a   M37
                                                                 R1b1b2a1b6b   M222/USP9Y+3636
                                                                 R1b1b2a1b6c    P66
                          R1b1c   M335    (position relative to P297 uncertain)
       R2   M124, P249, P267

Private SNPs


Y-DNA haplogroup R is believed to have arisen approximately 27,000 years ago in Asia. The two currently defined sublcades are R1 and R2.


Adams et al, The Case of the Unreliable SNP: Recurrent Back-mutation of Y-chromosomal Marker P25 Through Gene Conversion. (abstract) Forensic Science International 159:14-20, 2006.
Alonso et al, The Place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Behar et al, Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Human Genetics 114:354-365, 2004.
Capelli et al, Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 2005.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics, 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (pdf) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Karafet et al, Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 69:615-628, 2001.
Karlsson et al, Y-chromosome Diversity in Sweden - A Long-time Perspective. (pdf) European Journal of Human Genetics, 14:963-970, 2006.
Kayser et al. Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
McEvoy et al, Y-chromosomes and the Extent of Patrilineal Ancestry in Irish Surnames (abstract) Human Genetics 2006 Jan 12;:1-8 (Epub ahead of print).
Mohyuddin et al, Detection of Novel Y SNPs Provides Further Insights into Y Chromosomal Variation in Pakistan. Journal of Human Genetics, 2006.
Myres et al, (2007), Y-chromosome Short Tandem Repeat DYS458.2 Non-concensus Alleles Occur Independently in Both Binary Haplogroups J1-M267 and R1b3-M405. Croatian Medical Journal, 48, 2007.
Nasidze et al, MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 69:401-412, 2005.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Semino et al, The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo Sapiens Sapiens in Extant Europeans. (pdf) Science, V290:1155-1159, 2000.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (available by subscription) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Sims et al, Sub-Populations Within the Major European and African Derived Haplogroups R1b3 and E3a Are Differentiated by Previously Phylogenetically Undefined Y-SNPs. Human Mutation: Mutation in Brief #940, Online, 2007.
Su et al, Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Valone et al, Y SNP Typing of African-American and Caucasian Samples Using Allele-Specific Hybridization and Primer Extension. (pdf) Journal of Forensic Science, 49:4, July 2004.
Wells et al, The Eurasian Heartland: A Continental Perspective on Y-chromosome Diversity. PNAS, Vol. 98; 18:10244-10249, 2001.

Additional Resources:

David Faux, U152+/S28+ Data
A. A. Foster, Variations of R1b Ydna in Europe: Distribution and Origins
Dennis Garvey, Discussion on R1a
Dennis Garvey, Discussion on R1b
Proofer Joan, Major R1b Haplotypes in YHRD
Charles Kerchner, R1b and Subclades YDNA Haplogroup Project
John McEwan, Dal Riadic Migration Y Chromosome DNA Genealogy Page
Edward McKee, Y-DNA R1b1c7
National Geographic Genographic Project, Information on R1a
Cyndi Rutledge, R1a and Subclades YDNA Haplogroup Project
Ron Scott, R1a and R1b-R2: Frequency Distribution of Extended Haplotypes Gathered from YSearch
Sean Silver, The Jewish R1b Project
Vincent Vizachero, R1b Haplogroup Distribution Maps
David Weston et al, YDNA Haplogroup R1b-U106/S21+ Research Group
David Wilson, The Northwest Irish Variety of Y-DNA Haplogroup R
Dennis Wright, The Irish Type III Website

Corrections/Additions made since 31 December 2007:

Contact person for Haplogroup R: Vincent Vizachero.

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