Y-DNA Haplogroup E and its Subclades - 2010
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 3 February 2010

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2009 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private

E   M40/SRY4064/SRY8299, M96, P29, P150, P152, P154, P155, P156, P162, P168, P169, P170, P171, P172, P173, P174, P175, P176
       E*   -
       E1   P147
             E1*   -
             E1a   M33, M132
                    E1a*   -
                    E1a1   M44
                    E1a2   P110
                    E1a3   L133
                    E1a4   L94
             E1b   P177
                    E1b*   -
                    E1b1   DYS391p, P2/PN2, P179, P180, P181
                          E1b1*   -
                          E1b1a   DYS271/M2/SY81, M180/P88, P1/PN1, P46, P182, P189, P211, P293
                                 E1b1a*   -
                                 E1b1a1   M58
                                 E1b1a2   M116.2
                                 E1b1a3   M149
                                 E1b1a4   M154
                                 E1b1a5   M155
                                 E1b1a6   M10, M66, M156, M195
                                 E1b1a7   M191/P86, U186, P253/U247
                                       E1b1a7*   -
                                       E1b1a7a   P252/U174
                                              E1b1a7a*   -
                                              E1b1a7a1   P9.2
                                              E1b1a7a2   P115
                                              E1b1a7a3   P116
                                                    E1b1a7a3*   -
                                                    E1b1a7a3a   P113
                                 E1b1a8   U175
                                       E1b1a8*   -
                                       E1b1a8a   P277, P278, U209
                                              E1b1a8a*   -
                                              E1b1a8a1   U290
                                                    E1b1a8a1*   -
                                                    E1b1a8a1a   U181
                                              E1b1a8a2   P59
                                 E1b1a9   P268, P269
                          E1b1b   M215
                                 E1b1b*   -
                                 E1b1b1   M35, M243    (M243 position relative to M281, V6, P72 and M293 still uncertain)
                                       E1b1b1*   -
                                       E1b1b1a   L18, M78, V68    (L18 position relative to M521 is still uncertain)
                                              E1b1b1a*   -
                                              E1b1b1a1   V12
                                                    E1b1b1a1*   -
                                                    E1b1b1a1a   M224
                                                    E1b1b1a1b   V32
                                              E1b1b1a2   V13, V36
                                                    E1b1b1a2*   -
                                                    E1b1b1a2a   V27
                                                    E1b1b1a2b   P65
                                                    E1b1b1a2c   L17
                                              E1b1b1a3   V22
                                                    E1b1b1a3*   -
                                                    E1b1b1a3a   M148
                                                    E1b1b1a3b   V19
                                              E1b1b1a4   V65, L66, L67    (L66 and L67 are either synonymous to or downstream of E-V65)
                                              E1b1b1a5   M521
                                       E1b1b1b   M81
                                              E1b1b1b*   -
                                              E1b1b1b1   M107
                                              E1b1b1b2   M183, M310, L19
                                                    E1b1b1b2a    M165
                                       E1b1b1c   M123
                                              E1b1b1c*   -
                                              E1b1b1c1   M34
                                                    E1b1b1c1*   -
                                                    E1b1b1c1a   M84, L29
                                                           E1b1b1c1a1   M136
                                                    E1b1b1c1b   M290
                                       E1b1b1d   M281
                                       E1b1b1e   V6
                                       E1b1b1f   P72
                                       E1b1b1g   M293
                          E1b1c   M329
                    E1b2   P75
       E2   M75, P68
             E2*   -
             E2a   M41/P210
             E2b   M54, M90, M98
                    E2b*   -
                    E2b1   M85
                          E2b1*   -
                          E2b1a   M200
                                 E2b1a*    -
                                 E2b1a1   P45
                                 E2b1a2   P258


Y-DNA haplogroup E would appear to have arisen in Northeast Africa based on the concentration and variety of E subclades in that area today. But the fact that Haplogroup E is closely linked with Haplogroup D, which is not found in Africa, leaves open the possibility that E first arose in the Near or Middle East and was subsequently carried into Africa by a back migration.E1b1 is by far the lineage of greatest geographical distribution. It has two important sub-lineages, E1b1a and E1b1b. E1b1a is an African lineage that probably expanded from northern African to sub-Saharan and equatorial Africa with the Bantu agricultural expansion. E1b1a is the most common lineage among African Americans. E1b1b1 probably evolved either in Northeast Africa or the Near East and then expanded to the west--both north and south of the Mediterranean Sea. Eb1b1 clusters are seen today in Western Europe, Southeast Europe, the Near East, Northeast Africa and Northwest Africa. The Cruciani articles (references and links below) are indispensable resources for understanding the structure of this complicated haplogroup, but note that the Cruciani haplogroup labels are now superseded because of the recently discovered new SNPS that lie closer to the root of the E branch of the Y-haplogroup Tree.

A caution on clade labels: Because knowledge of this branch of the Y-chromosome tree has advanced so quickly in the last few years, different clade labels can be found in current use for the same SNP-determined branch of the tree. For example, it is still common to see E3b1 and E3b2 used to distinguish between the M78 and M81 branches of the tree though greater resolution is now possible.


Alonso et al, The Place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Battaglia et al, Y-chromosomal Evidence of the Cultural Diffusion of Agriculture in Southeast Europe European Journal of Human Genetics, 249. 2008.
Behar et al, Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Bortolini et al, Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas. American Journal of Human Genetics, 73:524539, (2003).
Capelli et al, Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 2005.
Cadenas et al, Y-chromosome Diversity Characterizes the Gulf of Oman. European Journal of Human Genetics, 16:374-386, 2008.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Cruciani et al, Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out of Africa. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 74:1014-1022, 2004.
Cruciani et al, Molecular Dissection of the Y Chromosome Haplogroup E-M78 (E3b1a): A Posteriori Evaluation of a Microsatellite-Networked-Based Approach Through Six New Biallelic Markers. (pdf) Human Mutation: Mutation in Brief #916, 2006.
Cruciani et al, Tracing Past Human Male Movements in Northern/Eastern Africa and Western Eurasia: New Clues from Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12. (pdf) Molecular Biology and Evolution 24(6):1300-1311, 2007.
Cruciani et al, Recurrent Mutation in SNPs within Y chromosome E3b (E-M215) Haplogroup: A Rebuttal. (abstract) American Journal of Human Biolology. Sep-Oct;20(5):614-6, 2008
. Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (pdf) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
Henn et al, Y-chromosomal Evidence of a Pastoralist Migration through Tanzania to Southern Africa. PNAS, vol. 105 no. 31 10693-10698, 2008.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
King et al, Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics. 72:205214. 2008.
Nasidze et al, MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 69:401-412, 2005.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Repping et al, High mutation rates have driven extensive structural polymorphism among human Y chromosomes. Nature Genetics 38, 463 - 467, 2006.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Semino et al, Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 74:1023-1034, 2004.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Sims et al, Sub-Populations Within the Major European and African Derived Haplogroups R1b3 and E3a Are Differentiated by Previously Phylogenetically Undefined Y-SNPs. Human Mutation: Mutation in Brief #940, Online, 2007.
Valone et al, Y SNP Typing of African-American and Caucasian Samples Using Allele-Specific Hybridization and Primer Extension. (pdf) Journal of Forensic Science, 49:4, July 2004.

Additional Resources:

Bill Harvey, Denis Savard, Victor Villarreal, FTDNA's E-M35 Project (formerly the E3b Project)
Victor Villareal, The E-M35 Phylogeny Project
E-M35 community, Double Helix Forums
Dennis Garvey, Discussion on E3a (No longer mantained)
Dennis Garvey, Discussion on E3b (No longer mantained)

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2010:

Contact Person for Haplogroup E: Victor Villarreal

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