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|CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS: Added Redefined|
|SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2009 tree Confirmed within subclade Provisional Private|
Q1 P36.2, L232, L273, L274
Q1a1 M120, M265/N14
Q1a2 M25, M143
Q1a3 L56, L57, M346
Q1a3a L53, L54, L55, L213
Q1a3a1c M199, P106, P292
Q1b M378, L214, L215, L275
Y-DNA haplogroup Q arose in Central Asia and migrated through the Altai/Baikal region of northern Eurasia into the Americas. Today it is found in North Eurasia, with some exemplars in European populations. The Q1a3a1 sub-group is almost exclusively associated with Native American populations.
Bortolini et al,
Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas.
American Journal of Human Genetics, 73:524-539, 2003.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Geppert et al, Hierarchical Y-SNP Assay to Study the Hidden Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationship of Native Populations in South America, Forensic Science International: Genetics, 6 Oct 2010. [Epub ahead of print]
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Su et al, Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Underhill et al, Detection of Numerous Y Chromosome Biallelic Polymorphisms by Denaturing High-performance Liquid Chromatography. (Abstract) Genome Research, 7(10):996-1005, 1997 Oct.
Rebekah Canada, yDNA Haplogroup Q
Rebekah Canada, The yDNA Haplogroup Q Project
Ana Oquendo Pabón, American Indian Q3 Haplogroup Project
Glinda Seabaugh, American Indian DNA Project
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2010:
Contact person for Haplogroup Q: Charles Moore
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