Y-DNA Haplogroup R and its Subclades - 2010
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 2 November 2010

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2009 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private

R   M207/UTY2, P224, P227, P229, P232, P280, P285, S4, S8, S9, V45
       R*   -
       R1   M173/P241, M306/S1,P225, P231, P233, P234, P236, P238, P242, P245, P286, P294
             R1*   -
             R1a   L62/M513, L63/M511, L145/M449, L146/M420
                    R1a*   -
                    R1a1   L120/M516, L122/M448, M459, SRY1532.2/SRY10831.2
                          R1a1*   -
                          R1a1a   M17, M198, M512, M514, M515
                                 R1a1a*   -
                                 R1a1a1   M417, Page07 (see Notes)
                                       R1a1a1*   -
                                       R1a1a1a   M56
                                       R1a1a1b   M157
                                       R1a1a1c   M64.2, M87, M204
                                       R1a1a1d   P98
                                       R1a1a1e   PK5
                                       R1a1a1f   M434
                                       R1a1a1g   M458
                                              R1a1a1g*   -
                                              R1a1a1g1   M334    (position relative to L260 uncertain)
                                              R1a1a1g2   L260
             R1b   M343
                    R1b*   -
                    R1b1   L278, M415, P25
                          R1b1*   -
                          R1b1a   V88
                                R1b1a*   -
                                R1b1a1   M18
                                R1b1a2   V8
                                R1b1a3   V35
                                       R1b1a3*   -
                                       R1b1a3a   V7
                                R1b1a4   V69
                          R1b1b   P297
                                 R1b1b*   -
                                 R1b1b1   M73, M478
                                 R1b1b2   L265, M269, M520, S3, S10, S13, S17
                                       R1b1b2*   -
                                       R1b1b2a   L23/S141, L49, L150
                                              R1b1b2a*   -
                                              R1b1b2a1   L51/M412/S167
                                                    R1b1b2a1*   -
                                                    R1b1b2a1a   L11/S127, L52, L151, P310/S129, P311/S128
                                                           R1b1b2a1a*   -
                                                           R1b1b2a1a1   M405/S21/U106
                                                                 R1b1b2a1a1*   -
                                                                 R1b1b2a1a1a   M467/S29/U198
                                                                 R1b1b2a1a1b   P107    (position relative to L48 uncertain)
                                                                 R1b1b2a1a1c   DYS439(null)/L1/S26
                                                                 R1b1b2a1a1d   L48/S162    
                                                                        R1b1b2a1a1d*   -
                                                                        R1b1b2a1a1d1   L47
                                                                              R1b1b2a1a1d1*   -
                                                                              R1b1b2a1a1d1a   L44
                                                                                     R1b1b2a1a1d1a*   -
                                                                                     R1b1b2a1a1d1a1   L45, L46, L164
                                                                        R1b1b2a1a1d2   L148
                                                                 R1b1b2a1a1e   L257/S186    
                                                           R1b1b2a1a2   P312/S116
                                                                 R1b1b2a1a2*   -
                                                                 R1b1b2a1a2a   M65
                                                                 R1b1b2a1a2b   M153
                                                                 R1b1b2a1a2c   M167/SRY2627
                                                                 R1b1b2a1a2d   S28/U152
                                                                       R1b1b2a1a2d*   -
                                                                        R1b1b2a1a2d1   M126    (position relative to L2/S139 uncertain)
                                                                        R1b1b2a1a2d2   M160    (position relative to L2/S139 uncertain)
                                                                        R1b1b2a1a2d3   L2/S139
                                                                              R1b1b2a1a2d3*   -
                                                                              R1b1b2a1a2d3a   L20/S144
                                                                        R1b1b2a1a2d4   L4/S178
                                                                 R1b1b2a1a2e   L165/S68
                                                                 R1b1b2a1a2f   L21/M529/S145
                                                                        R1b1b2a1a2f*   -
                                                                        R1b1b2a1a2f1   M37
                                                                        R1b1b2a1a2f2   M222/USP9Y+3636
                                                                        R1b1b2a1a2f3   P66
                                                                        R1b1b2a1a2f4   L226/S168
                                                                        R1b1b2a1a2f5   L193/S176
                                                                        R1b1b2a1a2f6   L144/S175
                          R1b1c   M335
       R2   M479
             R2*   -
             R2a   L266, M124, P249, P267

Private SNPs


Y-DNA haplogroup R (M207) is believed to have arisen approximately 27,000 years ago in Asia. The two currently defined subclades are R1 and R2.


Adams et al, The Case of the Unreliable SNP: Recurrent Back-mutation of Y-chromosomal Marker P25 Through Gene Conversion. (abstract) Forensic Science International 159:14-20, 2006.
Alonso et al, The Place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Behar et al, Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Human Genetics 114:354-365, 2004.
Balaresque et al, A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for European Paternal Lineages. PLoS biology. 8(1):e1000285 2010.
Capelli et al, Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 2005.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics, 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Cruciani et al, Human Y Chromosome Haplogroup R-V88: A Paternal Genetic Record of Early Mid Holocene Trans-Saharan Connections and the Spread of Chadic Languages. (abstract) (Epub ahead of print) European Journal of Human Genetics, January 6, 2010a.
Cruciani et al, Strong Intra- and Inter-continental Differentiation Revealed by Y chromosome SNPs M269, U106 and U152. Forensic Science International. Genetics,7-10, 2010b.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (pdf) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
Hinds et al, Whole-genome Patterns of Common DNA Variation in Three Human Populations. Science, 307:1072-1079, 2005.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Karafet et al, Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 69:615-628, 2001.
Karlsson et al, Y-chromosome Diversity in Sweden - A Long-time Perspective. (pdf) European Journal of Human Genetics, 14:963-970, 2006.
Kayser et al. Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
McEvoy et al, Y-chromosomes and the Extent of Patrilineal Ancestry in Irish Surnames (abstract) Human Genetics 2006 Jan 12;:1-8 (Epub ahead of print).
Mohyuddin et al, Detection of Novel Y SNPs Provides Further Insights into Y Chromosomal Variation in Pakistan. Journal of Human Genetics, 2006.
Moore et al, A Y-chromosome Signature of Hegemony in Gaelic Ireland. American Journal of Human Genetics, 78(2):334-338, 2006.
. Myres et al, A Major Y-chromosome Haplogroup R1b Holocene Era Founder Effect in Central and Western Europe. European journal of human genetics : EJHG. (July):1-7, 2010.
Myres et al, (2007), Y-chromosome Short Tandem Repeat DYS458.2 Non-concensus Alleles Occur Independently in Both Binary Haplogroups J1-M267 and R1b3-M405. Croatian Medical Journal, 48, 2007.
Nasidze et al, MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 69:401-412, 2005.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Repping et al, High Mutation Rates Have Driven Extensive Structural Polymorphism among Human Y Chromosomes. (pdf) National Genetics, 38: 463-467, 2006.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Semino et al, The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo Sapiens Sapiens in Extant Europeans. (pdf) Science, V290:1155-1159, 2000.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (available by subscription) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Sims et al, Sub-Populations Within the Major European and African Derived Haplogroups R1b3 and E3a Are Differentiated by Previously Phylogenetically Undefined Y-SNPs. Human Mutation: Mutation in Brief #940, Online, 2007.
Su et al, Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Underhill et al, Separating the Post-Glacial Coancestry of European and Asian Y Chromosomes within Haplogroup R1a. (abstract) European Journal of Human Genetics, 1-6, 2009.
Valone et al, Y SNP Typing of African-American and Caucasian Samples Using Allele-Specific Hybridization and Primer Extension. (pdf) Journal of Forensic Science, 49:4, July 2004.
Wells et al, The Eurasian Heartland: A Continental Perspective on Y-chromosome Diversity. PNAS, Vol. 98; 18:10244-10249, 2001.

Additional Resources:

--, R1a International Y-DNA Project
Dan Draghici, YDNA Haplogroup R1b-U106/S21+ Research Group
David Faux, U152+/S28+ Data
Charles Kerchner, R1b and Subclades YDNA Haplogroup Project
John McEwan, Dal Riadic Migration Y Chromosome DNA Genealogy Page
Cyndi Rutledge, R1a and Subclades YDNA Haplogroup Project
Sean Silver, The Jewish R1b Project
Richard Stevens, R-P312 and Subclades Project.
David Wilson, R-M222 Haplogroup Project (Niall of the 9 Hostages, Ui Neill Clan)
Dennis Wright, The Irish Type III Website (L226) (Dalcassian Clans)

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2010:

Contact person for Haplogroup R: Vincent Vizachero.

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