Y-DNA Haplogroup G and its Subclades - 2011
The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the
Main Page. Directions for citing the document are given at
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Version History Last
revision date for this specific page: 21 December 2011
Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG
does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments
in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email
Alice Fairhurst if the differences need
clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.
G L116, L154, L204, L240, L269, L402, L520, L521, L522,
L523, L605, L769, L770,
L836, L837, M201, P257/U6,
Page94/U17, U2, U3,
U7, U12, U20, U21, U23, U33
G1 M285, M342
G1a P20_1, P20_2, P20_3
G1a1 L201, L202, L203
G1c L830, L831, L832, L834, L835
G2 L79, L142.2, L156, P287
G2a L31/S149, L149.1, P15, U5
G2a1 P16_1, P16_2
G2a1a P18_1, P18_2, P18_3
G2a3 L30/S126, L32/S148/U8, L190
G2a3a1 L14/S130/U16, L90/Page19/S133
G2a3b1a1a L13/S131/U13, L78
G2a3b1a4 L660, L662
G2a3b2 L177_1, L177_2, L177_3
G2c L72, L183, M377
An Extended Version of G Tree with STR Marker Categories
created by Content Expert Ray Banks.
Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution
criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple
confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.
- L139 is located under L497. Listed 22 Jul 2009.
and L185 are located under M406. Listed 11 Dec 2009.
- L661 is located under L660 and L662. Listed 13 Oct 2011.
- L695 is located under L694. Listed 13 Oct 2011.
SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples
and/or correct placement on the tree.
- L166 and L167 are located under L91. Listed 31 May 2011.
- L223 is located under P15 and upstream of L91 & M286. Listed 31 May 2011.
- L297 was found under L43. Listed 31 May 2011.
- L353_1 and L353_2 are located under L140. Listed 31 May 2011.
- L373, L374, L375, L376, L377, L378,
and L379 are located at approximately L14. Listed 31 May 2011.
- L486 was found at approximately L497. Listed 31 May 2011.
- L496 is located at approximately P287. Listed 31 May 2011.
- L518 is located at approximately L140 but thought downstream of L497. Listed 31 May 2011.
- L519 and L524 are located at approximately M201. Listed 31 May 2011.
- Page99 is reported within M201. Listed 31 May 2011.
- L833 is located at approximately M285. Listed 8 November 2011.
- Z1903 is located under L140 and includes L640. Listed 21 December 2011.
- Identical SNPs that were discovered separately are listed in alphabetical order, not necessarily in
the order of discovery, and separated by "/". Examples: P257/U6, L31/S149.
Y-DNA haplogroup G. Scholars have proposed dates ranging from
10,000 to 23,000 years ago for the origin of this group (Cinnioglu, Genographic Project,
Semino). They have also suggested various places in western Asia as the site
of origin. Other than origin information, a unitary concept of haplogroup G
has little practical importance because virtually all G men belong to G subgroups
that arose more recently and have differing geographical distributions.
G1 Haplogroup G1 is a much less
common form of G found in populations than is G2. All haplogroup G1 men so far
have the 12 value at marker DYS392 -- rarely seen in G except in G1 men (G
project data) G1 reaches parity with G2 only in parts of Iran reaching
there up to 5% of all men. G1 is far less common in Europe, North Africa
and Asia. (G Project data, Cinnioglu, Regueiro, & DYS392=12 G1
estimates from Adams, El-Sabai, Ferri, Ghiani, Heber, Lovrecic, Nasidze-YHRD
data from 3 studies, Rodriguez, Sengupta, Zalloua-2 studies). By exception,
two Ashkenazi Jewish G1 subgroups exist, and a pocket of G1a men is found
in Kazakhstan, (Biro, G project data)
G2a1/G2a1a All haplogroup G2a1a
men so far have the 10 value at marker DYS392 -- rarely seen in G except in
G2a1a men. G2a1a is found in high percentages in the central
Caucasus Mountains area, and is rare elsewhere. Small
clusters are found among Ashkenazi Jews, some eastern Europeans and
among Maronite Christians in Lebanon. (Nasidze data in YHRD database, G project
& Haber data)
G2a3a occurs in highest frequency in the eastern Mediterranean
area reaching up to 5% of all men. A high percentage of G2a3a
men have a value of 21 at marker DYS390 which is rare in G otherwise.
G2a3a is more common in southern Europe than in northern Europe. A distinctive Ashkenazi
Jewish subgroup of G2a3a exists. (King, G project & Cinnioglu
This is the dominant G group in Europe (perhaps 80% of G samples) and may reach
up to about 7% of all men in a country but averages about 3%. A
high percentage of G2a3b1a samples form three major subgroups, DYS388=13
(L497+), YCA=19,20 type of L13+ and DYS568=9. One G2a31a subgroup
(U1+) is also confirmed in some frequency outside Europe only in
the Caucasus region, particularly in the northwest. North of the
European borders of the once Roman Empire, the prevalence of these three
G2a3b1a subgroups (and G in general) drops considerably, and the three subgroups
are found in noticeable amounts in almost all regions of the once Roman Empire
in Europe except among the Basques of Spain. An Ashkenazi Jewish cluster from
northeastern Europe comprises about half of the DYS568=9 subgroup, and this
Jewish subgroup represents an exception to usual European boundaries
mentioned. The connection of these three G2a3b1a subgroups to
Etruscans, Alans and Sarmatians and other groups who migrated to Europe is
widely debated. (data from Adams and abt 2000 G2a3b1a samples in
Men These constitute a small minority so far and wide
geographical origins. Some have a double value for marker DYS19.
G2c Available G2c samples are
either (a) those from Ashkenazi Jewish men who have a null value for marker
DYS425 or (b) a small number of men from Mediterranean areas, Afghanistan or
Pakistan. (Sengupta & G Project data).
Adams et al,
Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of
Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula, American Journal of
Human Genetics, 83(6): 725-36, 2008.
Alonso et al,
The Place of the Basques in the European
Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of
Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Athey et al,
Y-SNP rs34134567 Defines a Large Subgroup of Haplogroup G2a-P15. (pdf)
Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 4(2):149-150, 2008.
Balanovsky et al,
Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region.
Molecular Biology and Evolution, 13 May 2011.
Behar et al,
Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host
Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Biro et al,
Y-Chromosomal Comparison of the Madjars (Kazakhstan) and the Magyars
American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139(3): 305-10, 2009. (abstract)
Cinnioglu et al,
Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al,
A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported
by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes.
American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
El Sibai et al,
Structure of the Y-Chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A Coastal Inland
Contrast, Annals of Human Genetics, 73:568-81, 2009. (abstract)
Ghiani, et al,
Population data for
Y-chromosome haplotypes defined by AmpFlSTR YFiler PCR amplification kit in
North Sardinia (Italy), Collegium Antropologicum, 33 (2): 643-51, 2009.
Haber et al,
of History, Geography, and Religion on Genetic Structure: the Maronites in
Lebanon, European Journal of Human Genetics, 19(3): 334-40, 2010.
Herrera et al,
Neolithic Patrilineal Signals Indicate that the Armenian Plateau was Repopulated by Agriculturalists.
European Journal of Human Genetics, 10.1038/ejhg.2011.192, 2011.
Karafet et al,
New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup
Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008.
King et al,
Coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-Chromosome Models of Archaic
Greek Colonization of the Western Mediterranean, BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11: 69, 2011.
King et al,
Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic. (abstract)
Annals of Human Genetics. 72:205–214. 2008.
Kivisild et al,
The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste
Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Nasidze et al,
Genetic Evidence Concerning the Origins of the South and North Ossetians. (pdf)
Annals of Human Genetics, 68:588-599, 2004.
Nasidze et al,
MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics,
Nasidze et al,
Hypotheses of Language Replacement in the Caucasus: Evidence from the
Y-chromosome, Human Genetics 112 (3): 255-61, 2003.
Regueiro et al,
Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract)
Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Semino et al,
Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf)
American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Sengupta et al,
Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India
Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence
of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf)
American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction
of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome
and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Sims L M, Garvey D, Ballantyne J (2006).
Differentiation of sub-populations within Y-SNP haplogroup G, (poster citation - not available online)
Forensic Science Society, Autumn Conference, Wyboston, UK, November 3-5, 2006.
Sims L M, Garvey D, Ballantyne J (2009).
Improved Resolution Haplogroup G Phylogeny in the Y Chromosome, Revealed by a Set of Newly Characterized SNPs. (pdf)
PLoS One, 4:6, e5792, 2009.
Valone et al,
Y SNP Typing of African-American and Caucasian Samples Using Allele-Specific
Hybridization and Primer Extension. (pdf) Journal of Forensic Science, 49:4, July 2004.
Zalloua et al,
Genetic Traces of Historic Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the
Mediterranean, American Journal of Human Genetics, 83: 633-42, 2008.
Zalloua et al,
Y Chromosome Diversity in Lebanon is Structured by Recent Historical Events. (abstract)
The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 82, Issue 4, 873-882, 28 March 2008.
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
Haplogroup G (Y-DNA) Project, Ray Banks,
Paul Givargidze, Rolf Langland, Whit Athey.
Haplogroup G Project, Ray Banks.
Haplogroup G2c Project, Ted Kandell.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2011:
- Removed Phil Goff as contact person on 23 March 2011.
- Added Page19, Page108 on 1 April 2011.
- Added L72, L79, L142.2, L149, L154, L183, L190, L204, L240, L293, Page94 on 2 April 2011.
- Removed Whit Athey as contact person and added Ray H. Banks as contact person on 2 April 2011.
- Added .1 to L149 on 26 April 2011.
- Added L116, L156, L497 and completely revised haplogroup description on 6 May 2011.
- Added Adams et al (2008) on 6 May 2011.
- Added Biro et al (2009), El Sibai et al (2009), Ghiani et al (2009), Haber et al (2009), King et al (2011),
Nasidze et al (2003) and Zaloua et al (2008) on 16 May 2011.
- Corrected typo; snp in G2 is L156 (not L256) and moved L139 to a new location on 31 May 2011.
- Moved L184, L185 from tree into Private SNPs and added to Private SNPS L166, L167, L223, L269, L297, L353,
L373, L374, L375, L376, L377, L378, L379, L486, L496, L518, L519, L520, L521, L522, L523, L514, Page99 on 31 May 2011.
- Moved L269, L520, L521, L522, L523 from Private SNPs to G on 6 June 2011.
- Added Private snp L605 on 24 June 2011.
- Added extensions such as _1, _2, _3 to snps with multiple y-positions on 4 August 2011.
- Changed L141 to L141.1 on 6 August 2011.
- Added L640 onn 31 August 2011.
- Added L645 on 6 October 2011.
- Added L660, L661, L662, L694, L695 on 13 October 2011.
- Created the category of SNPs under Investigation, moved L139 to Private SNPs and added L402 to Investigation on 25 October 2011.
- SNPs L402, L605 moved from Investigation to the tree on 27 October 2011.
- Put new link for Ray Banks' Haplogroup G Project on 8 November 2011.
- Added L769, L770, L830, L831, L832, L833, L834, L835, L836, L837 on 8 November 2011.
- Added Extended G Tree link by Ray Banks on 19 November 2011.
- Added Herrera et al (2011) on 19 November 2011.
- Recoded P76 and M287 to Private on 21 December 2011.
- Added Z1903 and moved L830, L831, L832, L834, L835 from Investigation to tree on 21 December 2011.
Contact Person for Haplogroup G: Ray H. Banks