Y-DNA Haplogroup I and its Subclades - 2011
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 21 December 2011

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2010 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

I   L41, M170, M258, P19_1, P19_2, P19_3, P19_4, P19_5, P38, P212, U179
    I*    - (unobserved)
    I1   L64, L75, L80, L81, L118, L121/S62, L123, L124/S64, L125/S65, L157.1, L186, L187, M253,
             M307.2/P203.2, M450/S109, P30, P40, S63, S66, S107, S108, S110, S111
       I1*   -
       I1a   M21
       I1b   M227
           I1b*   -
           I1b1   M72
       I1c   M507/P259
       I1d   L22/S142
           I1d*   -
           I1d1   P109
           I1d2   L205
           I1d3   L287
              I1d3*   -
              I1d3a   L258
           I1d4   L300
       I1e   L211
       I1f    Z58
           I1f*    -
           I1f1    L338
           I1f2    Z139
       I1g    Z63
    I2   L68, M438/P215/S31
       I2*   -
       I2a   L460
           I2a*   -
           I2a1   P37.2
              I2a1*   -
              I2a1a   L158, L159.1/S169.1, M26
                  I2a1a*   -
                  I2a1a1   L160
                     I2a1a1*   -
                     I2a1a1a   M161
              I2a1b   L178, M423
                  I2a1b*   -
                  I2a1b1   M359.2/P41.2
                  I2a1b2   L161.1
              I2a1c   L233
           I2a2   L35/S150, L37/S153, L181, M436/P214/S33, P216/S30, P217/S23, P218/S32
              I2a2*   -
              I2a2a   L34/S151, L36/S152, L59, L368, L622, M223, P219/S24, P220/S119, P221/S120,
                                  P222/U250/S118, P223/S117
                  I2a2a*   -
                  I2a2a1   M284
                     I2a2a1*   -
                     I2a2a1a   L126/S165, L137/S166
                         I2a2a1a*   -
                         I2a2a1a1   L369
                  I2a2a2   M379
                  I2a2a3   P78
                  I2a2a4   P95
              I2a2b   L38/S154, L39/S155, L40/S156, L65.1/S159.1, L272.3
       I2b   L415, L416, L417
       I2c   L596, L597

Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.

SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.


Y-DNA haplogroup I is a European haplogroup, representing nearly one-fifth of the population. It is almost non-existent outside of Europe, suggesting that it arose in Europe. Estimates of the age of haplogroup I suggest that it arose prior to the last Glacial Maximum.

The two main subgroups of haplogroup I likely divided approximately 28,000 years ago:


Athey et al, Resolving the Placement of Haplogroup I-M223 in the Y-chromosome Phylogenetic Tree. (pdf) Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 1:54-55, 2005.
Battaglia et al, Y-chromosomal Evidence of the Cultural Diffusion of Agriculture in Southeast Europe European Journal of Human Genetics, 249. 2008.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
El Sibai et al, Geographical Structure of the Y-Chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A Coastal Inland Contrast, Annals of Human Genetics, 73:568-81, 2009. (abstract)
Ghiani, et al, Population data for Y-chromosome haplotypes defined by AmpFlSTR YFiler PCR amplification kit in North Sardinia (Italy), Collegium Antropologicum, 33 (2): 643-51, 2009.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Rootsi et al, Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow In Europe. American Journal of Human Genetics, 75:128-137, 2004.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics, 85:923-928, 2009.
Scheinfeldt et al, Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. (Link and comments from Dienekes' Anthropological Blog) Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.
Sims et al, Sub-Populations Within the Major European and African Derived Haplogroups R1b3 and E3a Are Differentiated by Previously Phylogenetically Undefined Y-SNPs. Human Mutation: Mutation in Brief #940, Online, 2007.
Underhill et al, New Phylogenetic Relationships for Y-chromosome Haplogroup I: Reappraising its Phylogeography and Prehistory in Rethinking the Human Evolution, Mellars P, Boyle K, Bar-Yosef O, Stringer C, Eds. McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, UK, pp. 33-42, 2007b. (not available online)
Underhill et al, The Phylogeography of Y Chromosome Binary Haplotypes and the Origins of Modern Human Populations. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 65:43-62, 2001.
Underhill et al, Y Chromosome Sequence Variation and the History of Human Populations. (pdf) Nature Genetics, 26: 358-361, 2000.
Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC), A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups. Genome Research, 12:339-348, 2002.

Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
Haplogroup I Y-DNA Project, Bob Waterous.
Founder Haplotypes (Modal Haplotypes for Y-Haplogroup I Varieties), Ken Nordtvedt.
Y-DNA Haplogroup I Subclade I1, Phil Goff, Steve Transgrud, Yme Drost, Ken Nordtvedt.
Iberian I1 Project, Aaron Salles Torres.
Deep Ancestry of I1a DYS19=16 Cluster, Phil Goff.
I1b* Project Database, Timothy Weakley.
I1d - L22 Project, Yme Drost.
The I1d1 (I-P109) yDNA Haplogroup Project, Rebekah Canada.
I1d2 (L205+) Project, Yme Drost.
I2* Haplogroup Project, Bob May, Peter Hrechdakian.
Y-Haplogroup I2a Project, Bernie Cullen, Bill Morrow.
I2b1/M223 Y-Clan Study, Aaron Salles Torres.
I2b2 L38+ Project, Timothy Weakley.

Contact People for Haplogroup I: Phil Goff and Charles Moore

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2011:

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