Y-DNA Haplogroup J and its Subclades - 2011
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 19 November 2011

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2010 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

J   12f2.1, L134, M304/Page16, P209, S6/L60, S34, S35
     J*   -
    ; J1   L255, L321, M267
         J1*   -
         J1a   M62
         J1b   M365.1
         J1c   L136
              J1c*   -
              J1c1   M390
              J1c2   P56
              J1c3   P58/Page8
                  J1c3*   -
                  J1c3a   M367.1, M368.1
                  J1c3b   M369
                  J1c3c   L92, L93
                  J1c3d   L147.1
                       J1c3d*   -
                       J1c3d1   L174.1
                       J1c3d2   L222.2
                           J1c3d2*   -
                           J1c3d2a   L65.2/S159.2
     J2   M172/Page28, L228
         J2*   -
         J2a   M410, L152, L212, L559
              J2a*   -
              J2a1   (not currently in use by ISOGG; M289 is within J2a4h2)
              J2a2   L581
                  J2a2*   -
                  J2a2a   P279
                       J2a2a*   -
                       J2a2a1   M340
              J2a3   DYS413≤18, L26/Page55/S57, L27   
                  J2a3*   -
                  J2a3a   M47, M322
                  J2a3b   M67/S51
                       J2a3b*   -
                       J2a3b1   M92, M260/Page14
                           J2a3b1*   -   
                           J2a3b1a   M327
                       J2a3b2   M163, M166
                       J2a3b3   L210, L218, L227
                  J2a3c   M68
                  J2a3d   M319
                  J2a3e   M339
                  J2a3f    M419
                  J2a3g   P81       
                  J2a3h   L24, L207.1
                       J2a3h*   -
                       J2a3h1   M158 (location under L24 is uncertain)
                       J2a3h2    L25
                           J2a3h2*   -   
                           J2a3h2a    DYS445≤7
                                J2a3h2a*   -   
                                J2a3h2a1   L70, L397, L398
                                    J2a3h2a1*   -
                                    J2a3h2a1a   M137
                                    J2a3h2a1b   M289   (location under DYS445≤7 uncertain)
                                    J2a3h2a1c   M318
                           J2a3h2b   L229, L230, L264
                           J2a3h2c   L231
                           J2a3h2d   L243
                           J2a3h2e   L254
                           J2a3h2f    L192.2
                                J2a3h2f*   --
                                J2a3h2f1   L271
                           J2a3h2g   L270
                  J2a3i    L88.2, L198
         J2b   M12, M102, M221, M314, L282
              J2b*   -
              J2b1   M205
              J2b2   M241
                  J2b2*   -
                  J2b2a   M99
                  J2b2b   M280
                  J2b2c   M321
                  J2b2d   P84
                  J2b2e   DYS455≤9
                  J2b2f    L283

Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.

Caveats for the information from Karafet et al (2008):


Y-DNA haplogroup J evolved in the ancient Near East and was carried into North Africa, Europe, Central Asia, Pakistan and India. J2 lineages originated in the area known as the Fertile Crescent. The main spread of J2 into the Mediterranean area is thought to have coincided with the expansion of agricultural peoples during the Neolithic period. The timing of the demographic events that brought J2 to Central Asia, Pakistan, and India is not yet known. J1 lineages may have a more southern origin, as they are more often found in the Levant region, other parts of the Near East, and North Africa, with a sparse distribution in the southern Mediterranean flank of Europe, and in Ethiopia.

There is a descending gradient in the frequency of occurrence of haplogroup J from the Middle East toward the northwest of Europe, reaching about 3% of the population on the northwest Atlantic coast. The occurrence of J in Europe is undoubtedly due both to the Neolithic expansion and to episodic migrations, though the relative proportion of those two sources is controversial and may not be the same in different locations.

A significant fraction of Jews belong to haplogroup J, but Jews represent a small minority of the European members of the haplogroup. The "Cohen Modal Haplotype" is a specific set of six Y-STR marker values that occurs in both J1 and J2, though at a much higher frequency in J1.


Adams et al, The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula, American Journal of Human Genetics, 83(6): 725-36, 2008.
Alonso et al, The Place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Athey T W, Schrack B E, A New Subclade of Y Haplogroup J2b. (pdf) Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 4(1):27-34, 2008.
Balanovsky et al, Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 13 May 2011.
Behar et al, Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Biro et al, A Y-Chromosomal Comparison of the Madjars (Kazakhstan) and the Magyars (Hungary), American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139(3): 305-10, 2009. (abstract)
Capelli et al, Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 2005.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Cruciani et al, Tracing Past Human Male Movements in Northern/Eastern Africa and Western Eurasia: New Clues from Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12. (pdf) Molecular Biology and Evolution 24(6):1300-1311, 2007.
Di Giacomo et al, Y Chromosomal Haplogroup J as a Signature of the Post-Neolithic Colonization of Europe. (pdf) Human Genetics, 115:357-371, 2004.
El Sibai et al, Geographical Structure of the Y-Chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A Coastal Inland Contrast, Annals of Human Genetics, 73:568-81, 2009. (abstract)
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
Herrera et al, Neolithic Patrilineal Signals Indicate that the Armenian Plateau was Repopulated by Agriculturalists. European Journal of Human Genetics, 10.1038/ejhg.2011.192, 2011.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Karafet et al, Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 69:615-628, 2001.
King et al, The Coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-Chromosome Models of Archaic Greek Colonization of the Western Mediterranean, BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11: 69, 2011.
King et al, Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics. 72:205214. 2008.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Myres et al, (2007), Y-chromosome Short Tandem Repeat DYS458.2 Non-concensus Alleles Occur Independently in Both Binary Haplogroups J1-M267 and R1b3-M405. Croatian Medical Journal, 48, 2007.
Nasidze et al, MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 69:401-412, 2005.
Nasidze et al, Testing Hypotheses of Language Replacement in the Caucasus: Evidence from the Y-chromosome, Human Genetics 112 (3): 255-61, 2003.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Semino et al, Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 74:1023-1034, 2004.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Zalloua et al, Y Chromosome Diversity in Lebanon is Structured by Recent Historical Events. (abstract) The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 82, Issue 4, 873-882, 28 March 2008.
Zalloua et al, Y Chromosome Diversity in Lebanon is Structured by Recent Historical Events. (abstract) The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 82, Issue 4, 873-882, 28 March 2008.

Additional Resources:

ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
The Y-Haplogroup J DNA Project, Bonnie Schrack and Tim Janzen.
J1* Haplogroup Y-DNA Project, Peter Hrechdakian, James Honeychuck, Paul Givargidze.
J1b (J-M365) Haplogroup Y-DNA Project, Ricardo Costa de Oliveira.
J1c3 Haplogroup Y-DNA Project, Jaber Al Haddad.
J1c3d1 (J-L222.2) Haplogroup Y-DNA Project.
J2 Haplogroup Y-DNA Project, Angela Cone.
J2 Haplogroup Arab Y-DNA Project, Kamal Al-Gazzah.
J2 Haplogroup Jewish Y-DNA Project, Debra Katz.
The J2b-M102 DNA Project, Roman Sychev.
J2b (455=8) Y-DNA Project.
J2Plus Project, Donn Devine.
J-L24 Y-DNA Project, Alfred Aberto, Debra Katz, Tim Janzen, Kamal Al-Gazzah.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2011:

Contact People for Haplogroup J: Bonnie Schrack or Tim Janzen

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