Y-DNA Haplogroup M and its Subclades - 2011
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 4 August 2011

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS:  Added  Redefined 
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2010 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

M   P256, Page93
     M*   -
     M1   M4, M5/P73, M106, M186, M189, M296, P35_1, P35_2, P35_3, Page1
         M1*   -
         M1a   P34_1, P34_2, P34_3, P34_4, P34_5
              M1a*   -
              M1a1   P51
              M1a2   P94
         M1b   P87
              M1b*   -
              M1b1   M104_1/M104_2/P22_1/P22_2, Page67
                  M1b1*   -
                  M1b1a   M16
                  M1b1b   M83
     M2   M353, M387
         M2*   -
         M2a   M177/SRY9138
     M3   P117, P118

NOTES:

Y-DNA haplogroup M reaches its known peak in Papua New Guinea, totaling one-third to two-thirds of population.

References:

Cox M P & Lahr M M, Y-Chromosome Diversity Is Inversely Associated with Language Affiliation in Paired Austronesian- and Papuan-Speaking Communities from Solomon Islands. (pdf) American Journal of Human Biology, 18:35-50, 2006.

Hurles et al, European Y-Chromosomal Lineages in Polynesians: A Contrast to the Population Structure Revealed by mtDNA. American Journal of Human Genetics, 63:1793-1806, 1998.
Hurles et al, Y Chromosomal Evidence for the Origins of Oceanic-Speaking Peoples. Genetics, 160:289-303, January 2002.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Kayser et al, Independent Histories of Human Y Chromosomes from Melanesia and Australia. American Journal of Human Genetics, 68:173-190, 2001.
Kayser et al, Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y-Chromosome Gradients across the Pacific. MBE Advance Access published August 21, 2006.
Kayser et al, Melanesian Origin of Polynesian Y Chromosomes. Current Biology, Vol. 10, No. 20, September 2000.
Kayser et al. Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
Mona et al, Patterns of Y-chromosome Diversity Intersect with the Trans-New Guinea Hypothesis. Mol Biol Evol. 2007 Sep 10; [Epub ahead of print]
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Scheinfeldt et al, Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. (Link and comments from Dienekes' Anthropological Blog) Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.

Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2011:

Contact People for Haplogroup M: Tim Janzen or David Reynolds

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