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|CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS: Added Redefined|
|SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2010 tree Confirmed within subclade Provisional Private Investigation|
N M231/Page91, Page56
� N* -
� N1 LLY22g_1, LLY22g_2
� � N1* -
� � N1a M128
� � N1b P43
� � � N1b* -
� � � N1b1 P63
� � N1c M46/Page70/Tat, P105
� � � N1c* -
� � � N1c1 M178, P298
� � � � N1c1* -
� � � � N1c1a P21_1, P21_2, P21_3
� � � � N1c1b P67_1, P67_2, P67_3
� � � � N1c1c P119
� � � � N1c1d L550
� � � � � N1c1d* -
� � � � � N1c1d1 L149.2, L551
� � � � � N1c1d2 L591
SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.
Y-DNA haplogroup N is found throughout Northern Eurasia. Possible points of origin include Northern China and Mongolia, from which the population spread both toward the Baltic region and into Siberia. The dominant N1c branch is found widely distributed in Siberia and in northern Europe. At its western extent, the greatest concentration is found among Finns, Latvians and Lithuanians. The N1b branch, whose geography is largely contained within the larger N1c range, shows two clusters, one in the Ural-Volga area and the other further east. The less common N1a lineage shows a scattered distribution in Asia, with small concentrations in areas of Kazakhstan, Korea and China. The undifferentiated N1* population is widely distributed at low levels of occurrence with a weak concentration in Cambodia and southern China. Haplogroup N has also been found at very low concentration in eastern Europe and in Anatolia.
Balanovsky et al,
Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context. (pdf)
American Journal of Human Genetics, 82(1):236-250, 2008.
Behar et al, Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (pdf) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
Gayden et al, The Himalayas as a Directional Barrier to Gene Flow. American Journal of Human Genetics, 80(5):884-894, 2007.
Hammer et al, Dual Origins of the Japanese: Common Ground for Hunter-gatherer and Farmer Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Journal of Human Genetics, 51:47-58, 2006.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Karlsson et al, Y-chromosome Diversity in Sweden - A Long-time Perspective. (pdf) European Journal of Human Genetics, 14:963-970, 2006. Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Rootsi et al., A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe. European Journal of Human Genetics. 15: 204-211,01 Feb 2007.
Rootsi S, Human Y Chromosomal Variations in European Populations. (dissertation) Council of the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Oct 2004.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
N Y-DNA Haplogroup Project, Robert Andersen.
N1c1 Y-DNA Project, Eugene Matyushonok.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2011:
Contact People for Haplogroup N: David F. Reynolds and Marja Pirttivaara
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