Y-DNA Haplogroup N and its Subclades - 2011
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 26 October 2011

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS:  Added  Redefined 
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2010 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

N   M231/Page91, Page56
     N*   -
     N1   LLY22g_1, LLY22g_2
         N1*   -
         N1a   M128
         N1b   P43
              N1b*   -
              N1b1   P63
         N1c   M46/Page70/Tat, P105
              N1c*   -
              N1c1   M178, P298
                  N1c1*   -
                  N1c1a   P21_1, P21_2, P21_3
                  N1c1b   P67_1, P67_2, P67_3
                  N1c1c   P119
                  N1c1d   L550
                       N1c1d*   -
                       N1c1d1   L149.2, L551
                       N1c1d2   L591

SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.

NOTES:

Y-DNA haplogroup N is found throughout Northern Eurasia. Possible points of origin include Northern China and Mongolia, from which the population spread both toward the Baltic region and into Siberia. The dominant N1c branch is found widely distributed in Siberia and in northern Europe. At its western extent, the greatest concentration is found among Finns, Latvians and Lithuanians. The N1b branch, whose geography is largely contained within the larger N1c range, shows two clusters, one in the Ural-Volga area and the other further east. The less common N1a lineage shows a scattered distribution in Asia, with small concentrations in areas of Kazakhstan, Korea and China. The undifferentiated N1* population is widely distributed at low levels of occurrence with a weak concentration in Cambodia and southern China. Haplogroup N has also been found at very low concentration in eastern Europe and in Anatolia.

References:

Balanovsky et al, Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 82(1):236-250, 2008.
Behar et al, Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (pdf) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
Gayden et al, The Himalayas as a Directional Barrier to Gene Flow. American Journal of Human Genetics, 80(5):884-894, 2007.
Hammer et al, Dual Origins of the Japanese: Common Ground for Hunter-gatherer and Farmer Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Journal of Human Genetics, 51:47-58, 2006.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Karlsson et al, Y-chromosome Diversity in Sweden - A Long-time Perspective. (pdf) European Journal of Human Genetics, 14:963-970, 2006.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Rootsi et al., A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe. European Journal of Human Genetics. 15: 204-211,01 Feb 2007.
Rootsi S, Human Y Chromosomal Variations in European Populations. (dissertation) Council of the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Oct 2004.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.

Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
N Y-DNA Haplogroup Project, Robert Andersen.
N1c1 Y-DNA Project, Eugene Matyushonok.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2011:

Contact People for Haplogroup N: David F. Reynolds and Marja Pirttivaara

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