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|CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS: Added Redefined|
|SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2010 tree Confirmed within subclade Provisional Private Investigation|
Q1 P36.2, L232, L273, L274
Q1a L472, L474, MEH2
Q1a1 M120, M265/N14
Q1a2 M25, M143
Q1a3 L56, L57, L528, M346
Q1a3a L53, L54, L55, L213, L331, L475, L476
Q1a3a1c M199, P106, P292
Q1a3a3 L330, L334
Q1a3a3a L329, L332, L333
Q1a3a4 L569, L570, L571
Q1a3c L527, L529
Q1b L275, L314
Q1b1 M378/Page100, L214, L215/Page82
SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.
Y-DNA haplogroup Q arose in Central Asia and migrated through the Altai/Baikal region of northern Eurasia into the Americas. Today it is found in North Eurasia, with some exemplars in European populations. The Q1a3a1 sub-group is almost exclusively associated with Native American populations.
Bortolini et al,
Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas.
American Journal of Human Genetics, 73:524-539, 2003.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Geppert et al, Hierarchical Y-SNP Assay to Study the Hidden Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationship of Native Populations in South America, Forensic Science International: Genetics, 6 Oct 2010. [Epub ahead of print]
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Su et al, Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Underhill et al, Detection of Numerous Y Chromosome Biallelic Polymorphisms by Denaturing High-performance Liquid Chromatography. (Abstract) Genome Research, 7(10):996-1005, 1997 Oct.
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
Y-chromosome DNA Haplogroup Q, Rebekah Canada.
American Indian Q1a3a: the Q-M3 Haplogroup Project, Ana Oquendo Pabón.
American Indian DNA Project, Glinda Seabaugh.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2011:
Contact person for Haplogroup Q: Charles Moore
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