Y-DNA Haplogroup A and its Subclades - 2012
The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the Main Page.   Directions for citing the document are given at the bottom of the Main Page.
Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 10 July 2012

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2011 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

Y   Root (Y-Adam)
•    A0   P305, V148, V149, V154, V164, V166, V172, V173, V177, V190, V196, V223, V225, V229,
               V233, V239

       A0*   -
       A0a   V152
           A0a*   -
           A0a1   P114
       A0b   L896, L982, L984, L986, L991, L993, L995, L997, L998, L999, L1000, L1001, L1005,
                     L1006, L1008, L1010, L1012, L1016, L1018

•    A1   L985, L989, L990, L1002, L1003, L1004, L1009, L1013, L1053, V161, V168, V171, V174
                V203, V238, V241, V250

       A1*   -
       A1a   M31, P82, V4, V14, V25
       A1b   P108, V221
           A1b*   -
           A1b1   L419
              A1b1*   -
              A1b1a   V50, V82, V198, V224
                  A1b1a*   -
                  A1b1a1   M14, M23, L968/M29/P3/PN3, M71, M135, M141, M206, M276/P247, M277/P248,
                                    MEH1, P4, P5, P36.1, Page71, Page87, Page95
                     A1b1a1*   -
                     A1b1a1a   M6, M49/Page41, M196
                         A1b1a1a*   -
                         A1b1a1a1   M212
                            A1b1a1a1*   -
                            A1b1a1a1a   M114
                            A1b1a1a1b   P28
                            A1b1a1a1c   P262
              A1b1b   M32
                  A1b1b*   -
                  A1b1b1   M28
                  A1b1b2   M144, M190/Page35, M220, M305/Page17, P100, P289, Page50
                     A1b1b2*   -
                     A1b1b2a   M51/Page42
                         A1b1b2a*   -
                         A1b1b2a1   P71, P102, P291
                     A1b1b2b   M13, M63, M127, M202, M219, Page53, Page77/V10
                         A1b1b2b*   -
                         A1b1b2b1   M118
           BT   L413, L418, L438, L440, L604, L957, L962, L969, L970, L971, L977, M42, M91,
                         M94, M139, M299, P97, Page65.1/SRY1532.1/SRY10831.1, V29, V31, V59,
                         V64, V187, V202, V235

Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.

SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.


Y-DNA haplogroup A contains lineages deriving from the earliest branching in the human Y chromosome tree. The oldest branching event, separating A0-P305 and A1-V161, is thought to have occurred about 140,000 years ago. Haplogroups A0-P305, A1a-M31 and A1b1a-M14 are restricted to Africa and A1b1b-M32 is nearly restricted to Africa. The haplogroup that would be named A1b2 is composed of haplogroups B through T. The internal branching of haplogroup A1-V161 into A1a-M31, A1b1, and BT (A1b2) may have occurred about 110,000 years ago. A0-P305 is found at low frequency in Central and West Africa. A1a-M31 is observed in northwestern Africans; A1b1a-M14 is seen among click language-speaking Khoisan populations. A1b1b-M32 has a wide distribution including Khoisan speaking and East African populations, and scattered members on the Arabian Peninsula.


Behar et al, Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People. Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Cruciani et al, A Revised Root for the Human Y Chromosomal Phylogenetic Tree--The Origin of Patrilineal Diversity in Africa. The American Journal of Human Genetics, doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.05.002, 2011.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Mohyuddin et al, Detection of Novel Y SNPs Provides Further Insights into Y Chromosomal Variation in Pakistan. Journal of Human Genetics, 2006.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Valone et al, Y SNP Typing of African-American and Caucasian Samples Using Allele-Specific Hybridization and Primer Extension. (pdf) Journal of Forensic Science, 49:4, July 2004.

Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
Y Haplogroup A, Bonnie Schrack.
The African DNA Project (A), Dr. Ana Oquendo Pabon.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2012:

Contact People for Haplogroup A: Ana Oquendo Pabon and Bonnie Schrack.

Back to Main Page
Back to Y-DNA Tree Trunk
Back to SNP Index
Back to Papers/Presentations Cited
Back to Glossary
Back to Listing Criteria

Copyright 2012, International Society of Genetic Genealogy. All Rights Reserved.