Y-DNA Haplogroup B and its Subclades - 2012
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 26 April 2012

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2011 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

B   M60, M181/Page32, M247/P85, P90
�    B*   -
�    B1   M236, M288
�   �    B1*   -
�   �    B1a   M146
�    B2   M182
�   �    B2*   -
�   �    B2a   M150, Page18
�   �    �     B2a*   -
�   �    �     B2a1   M218
�   �    �   �    B2a1*   -
�   �    �   �    B2a1a   M109, M152/Page60, P32, P50
�   �    �   �    B2a1b   G1
�   �    �    B2a2   M108.1
�   �    �   �    B2a2*   -
�   �    �   �    B2a2a   M43, P111
�   �    B2b   M112, M192, 50f2(P), Page72
�   �    �    B2b*   -
�   �    �    B2b1   P6
�   �    �    B2b2   M115, M169
�   �    �    B2b3   M30, M129
�   �    �   �    B2b3*   -
�   �    �   �    B2b3a   M108.2
�   �    �    B2b4   P7_1, P7_2, P7_3
�   �    �   �    B2b4*   -
�   �    �   �    B2b4a   P8_1, P8_2, P8_3, P70
�   �    �   �    B2b4b   MSY2.1, M211, Page86
�   �    B2c   P112

Y-DNA haplogroup B, like Y-DNA haplogroup A, is seen only in Africa and is scattered widely, but thinly across the continent. B is thought to have arisen approximately 50,000 years ago. These haplogroups have higher frequencies among hunter-gather groups in Ethiopia and Sudan, and are also seen among click language-speaking populations. The patchy, widespread distribution of these haplogroups may mean that they are remnants of ancient lineages that once had a much wider range but have been largely displaced by more recent population events.

Some geographic structuring is seen between the sub-groups B2a (B-M150) and B2b (B-M112). Sub-group B2b is seen among Central African Pygmies and South African Khoisan. Sub-group B2a is seen among Cameroonians, East Africans, and among South African Bantu speakers. B2a1a (B-M109) is the most commonly seen sub-group of B2a. About 2.3% of African-Americans belong to haplogroup B - with 1.5% of them belonging to the sub-group B2a1a.


Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Gomes et al, Digging Deeper into East African Human Y Chromosone Lineages, Human Genetics, 127(5):603-13, 2010.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Valone et al, Y SNP Typing of African-American and Caucasian Samples Using Allele-Specific Hybridization and Primer Extension. (pdf) Journal of Forensic Science, 49:4, July 2004.

Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
B Haplogroup Project .
The African DNA Project (B), Dr. Ana Oquendo Pabon.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2012:

Contact Person for Haplogroup B: Ana Oquendo Pabon

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