Y-DNA Haplogroup C and its Subclades - 2012
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 1 December 2012

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS:  Added  Redefined 
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2011 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

C   M130/Page51/RPS4Y711, M216, P184, P255/P325, P260/P324, Page85
    C*   -
    C1   M8, M105, M131, P122
       C1*   -
       C1a   P121
    C2   M38
       C2*   -
       C2a   M208
            C2a*   -
            C2a1   P33_1, P33_2, P33_3
            C2a2   P54
    C3   M217, P44, Z1453
       C3*   -
       C3a   PK2
           C3a*   -
           C3a1   M93
           C3a2   P39
           C3a3   M48
              C3a3*   --
              C3a3a   M77, M86
           C3a4   M407
           C3a5   P53.1
           C3a6   P62
       C3b   Z1338
           C3b*   -
           C3b1   Z1300
    C4   M347, P309
       C4*   -
       C4a   M210
    C5   M356
       C5*   -
       C5a   P92

An Extended Version of C Tree with STR Marker Categories created by Content Expert Ray Banks.

Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.

SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.

NOTES:

Y-DNA haplogroup C appears to have arisen shortly after modern humans left Africa and is estimated to be approximately 50,000 years old. The haplogroup can be traced across the southern Arabian Peninsula through Pakistan and India into Sri Lanka and Australia, and Southeast Asia.

C* is found on the Indian subcontinent, Sri Lanka and in parts of SE Asia. The rare C1 lineage appears to be restricted to Japan. C2 is found predominantly in New Guinea, Melanesia, and Polynesia. The successful C3 lineage is believed to have originated in southeast or central Asia, spreading from there into northern Asia and the Americas. C3 is also found in low concentrations in eastern and central Europe, where it may represent evidence of the westward expansion of the Huns in the early middle ages; subhaplogroup C3b seems to be found only in the Americas. C4 is found exclusively among aboriginal Australians and is dominant in that population. C5 has a significant presence in India with a single instance known from Pakistan. C6 is a recently recognized group whose geographical associations were not reported.

References:

Behar et al, Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People. Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Bortolini et al, Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas. American Journal of Human Genetics, 73:524539, (2003).
Bosch et al, Paternal and Maternal Lineages in the Balkans Show a Homogeneous Landscape over Linguistis Barriers except for the Isolated Aromuns. Annals of Human Genetics, 70:459-87, (2006).
Capelli et al, Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 2005.
Cadenas et al, Y-chromosome Diversity Characterizes the Gulf of Oman. European Journal of Human Genetics, 16:374-386, 2008.
Chen et al, Y Chromosome Genotyping and Genetic Structure of Zhuang Populations. (abstract) Acta Genetica Sinica, 33(12), 1060-72, 2006.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Delfin et al, The Y Chromosome Landscape of the Philippines: Extensive Heterogeneity and Varying Genetic Affinities of Negrito and Non-Negrito Groups. (abstract) European Journal of Human Genetics, 19:224-30, 2011.
Derenko et al, Contrasting patterns of Y-Chromosome variation in South Siberian populations from Baikal and Altai-Sayan regions, Human Genetics 118: 591-604, 2006.
Dulik et al, Mitochondrial DNA and Y Chromosome Variation Provides Evidence for a Recent Common Ancestry between Native Americans and Indigenous Altaians. (pdf) The American Journal of Human Genetics, doi: 10.1016/ajhg.2011.12.014, 2012.
Dulik et al, Y-Chromosome Variation in Altaian Kazakhs Reveals a Common Paternal Gene Pool for Kazakhs and the Influence of Mongolian Expansions. (pdf) PLoS ONE, Vol. 6, Issue 3, e17548, 2011.
Eaaswarkhanth et al, Traces of Sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern Lineages in Indian Muslim Populations. European Journal of Human Genetics, 18, 354-363, 2010.
Fornarino et al, Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome Diversity of the Tharus (Nepal): A Reservoir of Genetic Variation. BMC Evol Biol. 2009; 9: 154. Published online 2009 July 2. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-9-154, 2009.
Gayden et al, The Himalayas as a Directional Barrier to Gene Flow. American Journal of Human Genetics, 80(5):884-894, 2007.
Geppert et al, Hierarchical Y-SNP Assay to Study the Hidden Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationship of Native Populations in South America, Forensic Science International: Genetics, 6 Oct 2010. [Epub ahead of print]
Hammer et al, Dual Origins of the Japanese: Common Ground for Hunter-gatherer and Farmer Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Journal of Human Genetics, 51:47-58, 2006.
Hudajashov et al, Revealing the Prehistoric Settlement of Australia by Y chromosome and mtDNA Analysis. PNAS, 104:21, 2007.
Jin et al, Genetic Diversity of Two Haploid Markers in the Udegey Population from Southeastern Siberia. (abstract) American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 142:303-313, 2010.
Jin et al, The Peopling of Korea Revealed by Analyses of Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosomal Markers. PLoS One, vol 4(1):ed4210, 2009.
Karafet et al, Major East-West Division Underlies Y Chromosome Stratification Across Indonesia. Abstract. Molecular Biology and Evolution, doi:10.1093/molbev/msq063. 2010.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Kayser et al, Independent Histories of Human Y Chromosomes from Melanesia and Australia. American Journal of Human Genetics, 68:173-190, 2001.
Kayser et al, The Impact of the Austronesian Expansion: Evidence from mtDNa and Y Chromosome Diversity in the Admiralty Islands of Melanesia. Molecular Biology Evolution, 25(7):1362-1374, 2008.
Kayser et al, Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y-Chromosome Gradients across the Pacific. MBE Advance Access published August 21, 2006.
Li et al, Paternal Genetic Affinity between Western Austronesians and Daic Populations BMC Evolutionary Biology, Vo. 15(8), p. 146, 2008.
Malhi et al, Distribution of Y Chromosomes among Native North Americans: A Study of Athapaskan Population History American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 137:412-24, 2008.
Malyarchuk et al, On the Y-chromosome Haplogroup C3c Classification. Abstract. Journal of Human Genetics. Epub ahead of print, 2012 Jul 19.
Malyarchuk et al, Phylogeography of the Y-Chromosome Haplogroup C in Northern Eurasia. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 74:539-46, 2010.
Mohyuddin et al, Detection of Novel Y SNPs Provides Further Insights into Y Chromosomal Variation in Pakistan. Journal of Human Genetics, 2006.
Mona et al, Patterns of Y-chromosome Diversity Intersect with the Trans-New Guinea Hypothesis. Mol Biol Evol. 2007 Sep 10; [Epub ahead of print]
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Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Sharma et al, The Indian Origin of Paternal Haplogroup R1a1 Substantiates the Autochthonous Origin of Brahmins and the Caste SystemOrigin of Paternal Haplogroup R1a1. (abstract) Journal of Human Genetics, 54:47-55, 2009.
Shou et al, Y-Chromosome Distributions among Populations in Northwest China Identify Significant Contribution from Central Asian Pastoralists and Lesser Influence of Western Eurasians. (abstract) Journal of Human Genetics, 55: 314-22, 2010.
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Zhao et al, Presence of Three Different Paternal Lineages among North Indians: A Study of 560 Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Annals of Human Biology, 36(1):46-59, 2009.
Zhong et al, Extended Y-chromosome Investigation Suggests Post-Glacial Migrations of Modern Humans into East Asia via the Northern Route. Molecular Biology, 28(1):717-727, 2011.
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Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
C Haplogroup, Ed Martin, Ray Banks.
Haplogroup C Project, Ray Banks.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2012:

Contact Person for Haplogroup C: Ray H. Banks

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