Y-DNA Haplogroup C and its Subclades - 2012
The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the
Main Page. Directions for citing the document are given at
the bottom of the Main
Version History Last
revision date for this specific page: 1 December 2012
Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG
does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments
in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email
Alice Fairhurst if the differences need
clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.
C M130/Page51/RPS4Y711, M216, P184,
P255/P325, P260/P324, Page85
C1 M8, M105, M131, P122
C2a1 P33_1, P33_2, P33_3
C3 M217, P44, Z1453
C3a3a M77, M86
C4 M347, P309
An Extended Version of C Tree with STR Marker Categories
created by Content Expert Ray Banks.
Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution
criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple
confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.
- P55 is downstream of M130. Listed 5 August 2012.
SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples
and/or correct placement on the tree.
- V20 is located at approximately M130. Listed 1 December 2012.
- Identical SNPs that were discovered separately are listed in alphabetical order, not necessarily in
the order of discovery, and separated by "/". Example: M130/RPS4Y711.
Y-DNA haplogroup C appears to have arisen shortly after modern humans left Africa and
is estimated to be approximately 50,000 years old. The
haplogroup can be traced across the southern Arabian Peninsula through Pakistan and India
into Sri Lanka and Australia, and Southeast Asia.
C* is found on the Indian subcontinent, Sri Lanka and in parts of SE Asia. The rare C1 lineage
appears to be restricted to Japan. C2 is found predominantly in New Guinea, Melanesia, and
Polynesia. The successful C3 lineage is believed to have originated in southeast or central Asia,
spreading from there into northern Asia and the Americas. C3 is also found in low concentrations
in eastern and central Europe, where it may represent evidence of the westward expansion of the
Huns in the early middle ages; subhaplogroup C3b seems to be found only in the Americas.
C4 is found exclusively among aboriginal Australians and is dominant in that population.
C5 has a significant presence in India with a single instance known from Pakistan.
C6 is a recently recognized group whose geographical associations were not reported.
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Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas.
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Bosch et al,
Paternal and Maternal Lineages in the Balkans Show a Homogeneous Landscape over Linguistis Barriers
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Capelli et al,
Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective. (pdf)
Annals of Human Genetics, 2005.
Cadenas et al,
Y-chromosome Diversity Characterizes the Gulf of Oman.
European Journal of Human Genetics, 16:374-386, 2008.
Chen et al,
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Delfin et al,
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Derenko et al,
Contrasting patterns of Y-Chromosome variation in South Siberian populations from Baikal
and Altai-Sayan regions, Human Genetics 118: 591-604, 2006.
Dulik et al,
Mitochondrial DNA and Y Chromosome Variation Provides Evidence for a Recent Common Ancestry between Native
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Dulik et al,
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PLoS ONE, Vol. 6, Issue 3, e17548, 2011.
Eaaswarkhanth et al,
Traces of Sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern Lineages in Indian Muslim Populations.
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Gayden et al,
The Himalayas as a Directional Barrier to Gene Flow.
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Hammer et al,
Dual Origins of the Japanese: Common Ground for Hunter-gatherer and Farmer Y Chromosomes.
(abstract) Journal of Human Genetics, 51:47-58, 2006.
Hudajashov et al,
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PNAS, 104:21, 2007.
Jin et al,
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American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 142:303-313, 2010.
Jin et al,
The Peopling of Korea Revealed by Analyses of Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosomal Markers.
PLoS One, vol 4(1):ed4210, 2009.
Karafet et al,
Major East-West Division Underlies Y Chromosome Stratification Across Indonesia. Abstract.
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Karafet et al,
New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup
Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008.
Kayser et al,
Independent Histories of Human Y Chromosomes from Melanesia and Australia.
American Journal of Human Genetics, 68:173-190, 2001.
Kayser et al,
The Impact of the Austronesian Expansion: Evidence from mtDNa and Y Chromosome Diversity
in the Admiralty Islands of Melanesia.
Molecular Biology Evolution, 25(7):1362-1374, 2008.
Kayser et al,
Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y-Chromosome Gradients across
the Pacific. MBE Advance Access published August 21, 2006.
Li et al,
Paternal Genetic Affinity between Western Austronesians and Daic Populations
BMC Evolutionary Biology, Vo. 15(8), p. 146, 2008.
Malhi et al,
Distribution of Y Chromosomes among Native North Americans: A Study of Athapaskan Population History
American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 137:412-24, 2008.
Malyarchuk et al,
On the Y-chromosome Haplogroup C3c Classification.
Abstract. Journal of Human Genetics. Epub ahead of print, 2012 Jul 19.
Malyarchuk et al,
Phylogeography of the Y-Chromosome Haplogroup C in Northern Eurasia. (abstract)
Annals of Human Genetics, 74:539-46, 2010.
Mohyuddin et al,
Detection of Novel Y SNPs Provides Further Insights into Y Chromosomal Variation in Pakistan.
Journal of Human Genetics, 2006.
Mona et al,
Patterns of Y-chromosome Diversity Intersect with the Trans-New Guinea Hypothesis.
Mol Biol Evol. 2007 Sep 10; [Epub ahead of print]
Nonaka et al,
Y Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups in the Japanese Population and their Relationship to 16 Y-STR Polymorphisms. (abstract)
Annals of Human Genetics, 71:480-495, 2007.
Pakendorf et al,
Investigating the Effects of Prehistoric Migrations in Siberia: Genetic Variation and the Origins of Yakuts,
Human Genetics, Volume 120, Number 3, 334-353, 2006.
Scheinfeldt et al,
Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia.
Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.
Sengupta et al,
Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India
Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence
of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf)
American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Sharma et al,
The Indian Origin of Paternal Haplogroup R1a1 Substantiates the Autochthonous Origin of Brahmins and the Caste
SystemOrigin of Paternal Haplogroup R1a1. (abstract)
Journal of Human Genetics, 54:47-55, 2009.
Shou et al,
Y-Chromosome Distributions among Populations in Northwest China Identify Significant Contribution from
Central Asian Pastoralists and Lesser Influence of Western Eurasians. (abstract)
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Underhill et al,
Use of Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Population Structure in Tracing Human Migrations. (abstract)
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358-361, November 2000.
Xue et al,
A Spatial Analysis of Genetic Structure of Human Populations in China Reveals Distinct Difference between
Maternal and Paternal Lineages.
European Journal of Human Genetics, 16:705-17, 2008.
Zhao et al,
Presence of Three Different Paternal Lineages among North Indians: A Study of 560 Y Chromosomes. (abstract)
Annals of Human Biology, 36(1):46-59, 2009.
Zhong et al,
Extended Y-chromosome Investigation Suggests Post-Glacial Migrations of Modern Humans into East Asia via the
Molecular Biology, 28(1):717-727, 2011.
Zhong et al,
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and Early Settlement in East Asia. (abstract)
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ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
C Haplogroup, Ed Martin, Ray Banks.
Haplogroup C Project, Ray Banks.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2012:
- Changed contact persom from David Reynolds to Ray H. Banks on 22 February 2012.
- Coded P55 as private on 7 April 2012.
- Added Dulik et al (2011), Dulik et al (2012), Eaaswarkhanth et al (2010),
Fornarino et al (2009), Gayden et al (2007), Hudajashov et al (2007), Jin et al (2010), Karafet et al (2010),
Kayser et al (2008), Li et al (2008), Malhi et al (2008), Malyarchuk et al (2010), Nonaka et al (2006),
Sharma et al (2009), Shou et al (2010), Xue et al (2008) on 8 April 2012.
- Added Behar et al (2010), Bosch et al (2006), Cardenas et al (2007), Chen et al (2006), Delfin et al (2011),
Derenko et al (2006), Zhao et al (2009), Zhong et al (2010), Zhong et al (2011) on 9 April 2012.
- Removed some older papers that have been replaced by newer studies on 9 April 2012.
- Added Ray Banks to the C/C3 Haplogroup Project on 26 April 2012.
- Added Haplogroup C Project to Additional Resources on 26 April 2012.
- Added Z1300, Z1338, Z1453 and an Extended Version of C Tree on 18 June 2012.
- Moved P55 from tree to Private and added Malyarchuk et al(2012) on 5 August 2012.
- Changed email address for Ray Banks on 24 August 2012.
- Changed subclade for PK2 on 28 August 2012.
- Z1338 and Z1453 are no longer listed as provisional on 8 October 2012.
- Added V20 on 1 December 2012.
Contact Person for Haplogroup C: Ray H. Banks