Y-DNA Haplogroup C and its Subclades - 2012
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 1 December 2012

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2011 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

C   M130/Page51/RPS4Y711, M216, P184, P255/P325, P260/P324, Page85
�    C*   -
�    C1   M8, M105, M131, P122
�   �    C1*   -
�   �    C1a   P121
�    C2   M38
�   �    C2*   -
�   �    C2a   M208
�   �    �     C2a*   -
�   �    �     C2a1   P33_1, P33_2, P33_3
�   �    �     C2a2   P54
�    C3   M217, P44, Z1453
�   �    C3*   -
�   �    C3a   PK2
�   �    �    C3a*   -
�   �    �    C3a1   M93
�   �    �    C3a2   P39
�   �    �    C3a3   M48
�   �    �   �    C3a3*   --
�   �    �   �    C3a3a   M77, M86
�   �    �    C3a4   M407
�   �    �    C3a5   P53.1
�   �    �    C3a6   P62
�   �    C3b   Z1338
�   �    �    C3b*   -
�   �    �    C3b1   Z1300
�    C4   M347, P309
�   �    C4*   -
�   �    C4a   M210
�    C5   M356
�   �    C5*   -
�   �    C5a   P92

An Extended Version of C Tree with STR Marker Categories created by Content Expert Ray Banks.

Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.

SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.


Y-DNA haplogroup C appears to have arisen shortly after modern humans left Africa and is estimated to be approximately 50,000 years old. The haplogroup can be traced across the southern Arabian Peninsula through Pakistan and India into Sri Lanka and Australia, and Southeast Asia.

C* is found on the Indian subcontinent, Sri Lanka and in parts of SE Asia. The rare C1 lineage appears to be restricted to Japan. C2 is found predominantly in New Guinea, Melanesia, and Polynesia. The successful C3 lineage is believed to have originated in southeast or central Asia, spreading from there into northern Asia and the Americas. C3 is also found in low concentrations in eastern and central Europe, where it may represent evidence of the westward expansion of the Huns in the early middle ages; subhaplogroup C3b seems to be found only in the Americas. C4 is found exclusively among aboriginal Australians and is dominant in that population. C5 has a significant presence in India with a single instance known from Pakistan. C6 is a recently recognized group whose geographical associations were not reported.


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Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
C Haplogroup, Ed Martin, Ray Banks.
Haplogroup C Project, Ray Banks.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2012:

Contact Person for Haplogroup C: Ray H. Banks

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