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|CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS: Added Redefined|
|SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2011 tree Confirmed within subclade Provisional Private Investigation|
D M174/Page30, IMS-JST021355, Page3
• D* -
• D1 M15
• • D1* -
• • D1a N1
• D2 M55, M57, M64.1/Page44.1, M179/Page31, M359.1/P41.1, P37.1, P190, 12f2.2
• • D2* -
• • D2a M116.1
• • • D2a* -
• • • D2a1 M125
• • • • D2a1* -
• • • • D2a1a P42
• • • • • D2a1a* -
• • • • • D2a1a1 P12_1, P12_2, P12_3
• • • • D2a1b IMS-JST022457
• • • • • D2a1b* -
• • • • • D2a1b1 P53.2
• • • D2a2 M151
• • • D2a3 P120
• D3 P99
• • D3* -
• • D3a P47
Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.
SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.
Y-DNA haplogroup D is seen primarily in Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and in Japan and was established approximately 50,000 years ago. Sub-group D1 (D-M15) is seen in Tibet, Mongolia, Central Asia, and Southeast Asia, and the sub-groups D* (D-M174) and D3 (D-P47) are seen in Central Asia. The sub-group D2 (D-M55) is seen almost exclusively in Japan. The high frequency of haplogroup D in Tibet (about 50%) and in Japan (about 35%) implies some early migratory connection between these areas. Examination of the genetic diversity seen in sub-group D2 in Japan implies that this group has been isolated in Japan for between 12,000-20,000 years. The highest frequencies of D2 in Japan are seen among the Ainu and the Ryukyuans.
An isolated incidence of haplogroup D has also been seen in the Andaman Islands in the Indian Ocean. This implies that the group may once have had a much greater range, but has subsequently been displaced by more recent population events.
Cruciani et al,
A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported
by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes.
American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Cruciani et al, Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out of Africa. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 74:1014-1022, 2004.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Gayden et al, The Himalayas as a Directional Barrier to Gene Flow. American Journal of Human Genetics, 80(5):884-894, 2007.
Hammer et al, Dual Origins of the Japanese: Common Ground for Hunter-gatherer and Farmer Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Journal of Human Genetics, 51:47-58, 2006.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Karafet et al, Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 69:615-628, 2001.
Li et al, Paternal Genetic Affinity between Western Austronesians and Daic Populations BMC Evolutionary Biology, Vo. 15(8), p. 146, 2008.
Nonaka et al, Y Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups in the Japanese Population and their Relationship to 16 Y-STR Polymorphisms. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 71:480-495, 2007.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shi et al, Y-Chromosome Evidence of Earliest Modern Human Settlement in East Asia and Multiple Origins of Tibetan and Japanese Populations. (abstract) BMC Biology 2008, 6:45, 2008.
Su et al, Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age, (pdf), American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Thangaraj et al, Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population. (pdf) Current Biology, 13:86-93, 2003.
Xue et al, A Spatial Analysis of Genetic Structure of Human Populations in China Reveals Distinct Difference between Maternal and Paternal Lineages. European Journal of Human Genetics, 16:705-17, 2008.
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
D Haplogroup (YDNA) Project, Ray Banks.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2012:
Contact Person for Haplogroup D: Ray H. Banks
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