Y-DNA Haplogroup H and its Subclades - 2012
The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the Main Page.   Directions for citing the document are given at the bottom of the Main Page.
Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 18 July 2012

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS:  Added  Redefined 
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2011 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

H   M69/Page45, M370
    H*   -
    H1   M52
       H1*   -
       H1a   M82
           H1a*   -
           H1a1   M36, M197
           H1a2   M97
           H1a3   M39, M138
    H2   Apt
       H2*   -
       H2a   P80, P314.1/S220.1
       H2b   P266
    H3   P254

Y-DNA haplogroup H: The founding mutation for haplogroup H, M69, occurred in a haplogroup F man, probably in the Indian subcontinent The founder of haplogroup H probably lived about 30,000-40,000 years ago. This haplogroup has not yet been studied in a comprehensive manner. Today, nearly all members of haplogroup H live in the Indian subcontinent area. The Romani (also known as Gypsy) people, who apparently originated in India, are the main source of haplogroup H in western Europe.

References:

Behar et al, Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People. Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Bosch et al, Paternal and Maternal Lineages in the Balkans Show a Homogeneous Landscape over Linguistis Barriers except for the Isolated Aromuns. Annals of Human Genetics, 70:459-87, (2006).
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Zhao et al, Presence of Three Different Paternal Lineages among North Indians: A Study of 560 Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Annals of Human Biology, 36(1):46-59, 2009.

Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
H Haplogroup Project, Donald Locke.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2012:

Contact Person for Haplogroup H: Whit Athey

Back to Main Page
Back to Y-DNA Tree Trunk
Back to SNP Index
Back to Papers/Presentations Cited
Back to Glossary
Back to Listing Criteria

Copyright 2012. International Society of Genetic Genealogy. All Rights Reserved.