Y-DNA Haplogroup I and its Subclades - 2012
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 1 December 2012

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2011 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

I   L41, M170, M258, P19_1, P19_2, P19_3, P19_4, P19_5, P38, P212, U179
    I*    - (unobserved)
    I1   L64, L75, L80, L81, L118, L121/S62, L123, L124/S64, L125/S65, L157.1, L186, L187, L840,
             M253, M307.2/P203.2, M450/S109, P30, P40, S63, S66, S107, S108, S110, S111
       I1*   -
       I1a   DF29/S438
           I1a*   -
           I1a1   M227
              I1a1*   -
              I1a1a   M72
           I1a2   L22/S142
              I1a2*   -
              I1a2a   P109
              I1a2b   L205
              I1a2c   L287
                  I1a2c*   -
                  I1a2c1   L258/S335
                     I1a2c1*   -
                     I1a2c1a   L296
              I1a2d   L300/S241
              I1a2e   L813/Z719
           I1a3    S244/Z58
              I1a3*   -
              I1a3a   S246/Z59
                  I1a3a*   -
                  I1a3a1   S337/Z60, S439/Z61, Z62
                     I1a3a1*   -
                     I1a3a1a   Z140, Z141
                         I1a3a1a*   -
                         I1a3a1a1   L338
                     I1a3a1b   Z73
                     I1a3a1c   L573
                     I1a3a1d   L803
                  I1a3a2   Z382
              I1a3b   S296/Z138, Z139
           I1a4   S243/Z63
              I1a4*   -
              I1a4a   L1237
       I1b   Z131
    I2   L68/S329, M438/P215/S31
       I2*   -
       I2a   L460/S238
           I2a*   -
           I2a1   P37.2
              I2a1*   -
              I2a1a   L158/S433, L159.1/S169.1, M26
                  I2a1a*   -
                  I2a1a1   L160
              I2a1b   L178/S328, M423
                  I2a1b*   -
                  I2a1b1   M359.2/P41.2
                  I2a1b2   L161.1/S185
                  I2a1b3   L621/S392
                     I2a1b3*   -
                     I2a1b3a   L147.2
              I2a1c   L233/S183
           I2a2   L35/S150, L37/S153, L181, M436/P214/S33, P216/S30, P217/S23, P218/S32
              I2a2*   -
              I2a2a   L34/S151, L36/S152, L59, L368, L622, M223, P219/S24, P220/S119, P221/S120,
                                  P222/U250/S118, P223/S117, Z77
                  I2a2a*   -
                  I2a2a1   M284
                     I2a2a1*   -
                     I2a2a1a   L1195
                         I2a2a1a*   -
                         I2a2a1a1   L126/S165, L137/S166, L369
                         I2a2a1a2   L1193
                  I2a2a2   L701, L702
                     I2a2a2*   -
                     I2a2a2a   P78
                     I2a2a2b   L699, L703
                         I2a2a2b*   -
                         I2a2a2b1   L704
                  I2a2a3   Z161
                     I2a2a3*   -
                     I2a2a3a   L801/S390
                         I2a2a3a*   -
                         I2a2a3a1   P95
                         I2a2a3a2   Z78
                            I2a2a3a2*   -
                            I2a2a3a2a   L1198
                                I2a2a3a2a*   -
                                I2a2a3a2a1   Z190
                                   I2a2a3a2a1*   -
                                   I2a2a3a2a1a   Z79
                     I2a2a3b   L623, L147.4
                  I2a2a4   L1229
                     I2a2a4*   -
                     I2a2a4a   Z2054
                         I2a2a4a*   -
                         I2a2a4a1   L812/S391
                     I2a2a4b   L1230
                  I2a2a5   L1228
              I2a2b   L38/S154, L39/S155, L40/S156, L65.1/S159.1, L272.3
       I2b   L415, L416, L417
       I2c   L596/S292, L597/S333

Private SNPs are gradually being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:

Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.

SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.


Y-DNA haplogroup I is a European haplogroup, representing nearly one-fifth of the population. It is almost non-existent outside of Europe, suggesting that it arose in Europe. Estimates of the age of haplogroup I suggest that it arose prior to the last Glacial Maximum.

The two main subgroups of haplogroup I likely divided approximately 28,000 years ago:


Athey et al, Resolving the Placement of Haplogroup I-M223 in the Y-chromosome Phylogenetic Tree. (pdf) Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 1:54-55, 2005.
Battaglia et al, Y-chromosomal Evidence of the Cultural Diffusion of Agriculture in Southeast Europe European Journal of Human Genetics, 249. 2008.
Behar et al, Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People. Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Bosch et al, Paternal and Maternal Lineages in the Balkans Show a Homogeneous Landscape over Linguistis Barriers except for the Isolated Aromuns. Annals of Human Genetics, 70:459-87, (2006).
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
El Sibai et al, Geographical Structure of the Y-Chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A Coastal Inland Contrast, Annals of Human Genetics, 73:568-81, 2009. (abstract)
Ghiani, et al, Population data for Y-chromosome haplotypes defined by AmpFlSTR YFiler PCR amplification kit in North Sardinia (Italy), Collegium Antropologicum, 33 (2): 643-51, 2009.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Rootsi et al, Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow In Europe. American Journal of Human Genetics, 75:128-137, 2004.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics, 85:923-928, 2009.
Scheinfeldt et al, Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.
Sims et al, Sub-Populations Within the Major European and African Derived Haplogroups R1b3 and E3a Are Differentiated by Previously Phylogenetically Undefined Y-SNPs. Human Mutation: Mutation in Brief #940, Online, 2007.
Underhill et al, New Phylogenetic Relationships for Y-chromosome Haplogroup I: Reappraising its Phylogeography and Prehistory in Rethinking the Human Evolution, Mellars P, Boyle K, Bar-Yosef O, Stringer C, Eds. McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, UK, pp. 33-42, 2007b. (not available online)
Underhill et al, The Phylogeography of Y Chromosome Binary Haplotypes and the Origins of Modern Human Populations. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 65:43-62, 2001.
Underhill et al, Y Chromosome Sequence Variation and the History of Human Populations. (pdf) Nature Genetics, 26: 358-361, 2000.
Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC), A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups. Genome Research, 12:339-348, 2002.

Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
Haplogroup I Y-DNA Project, Bob Waterous.
Founder Haplotypes (Modal Haplotypes for Y-Haplogroup I Varieties), Ken Nordtvedt.
Y-DNA Haplogroup I Subclade I1, Phil Goff, Steve Transgrud, Yme Drost, Ken Nordtvedt.
Iberian I1 Project, Aaron Salles Torres.
I1>Z58+ and I1>Z63+ Project, Aaron Salles Torres, Julie Frame Falk.
Deep Ancestry of I1a DYS19=16 Cluster, Phil Goff.
I1b* Project Database, Timothy Weakley.
I1d - L22 Project, Yme Drost.
The I1d1 (I-P109) yDNA Haplogroup Project, Rebekah Canada.
I1d2 (L205+) Project, Yme Drost.
I2* Haplogroup Project, Bob May, Peter Hrechdakian.
Y-Haplogroup I2a Project, Bernie Cullen, Bill Morrow.
I2b1/M223 Y-Clan Study, Aaron Salles Torres.
I2b2 L38+ Project, Timothy Weakley.

Contact People for Haplogroup I: Phil Goff, Steve Trangsrud, and Aaron Salles Torres

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2012:

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