Y-DNA Haplogroup L and its Subclades - 2012
The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the
Main Page. Directions for citing the document are given at
the bottom of the Main
Version History Last
revision date for this specific page: 1 December 2012
Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG
does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments
in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email
Alice Fairhurst if the differences need
clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.
L L855, L863, L878, L879, M11, M20,
L1 M22, M295, Page121
L1a M27, M76, P329
L1b L655, M317
Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
Private SNPs - After investigation these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree:
either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to a single surname or to a
small group of related males.
- PK3 is downstream of M357. Listed 6 August 2012.
SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples
and/or correct placement on the tree.
- Page113 and Page116 are downstream of Page 121.
Listed 1 November 2011.
- Page6 is parallel to Page 121. Listed 1 November 2011.
- L877 are
found in L2. Listed 19 November 2011.
- L864, L865, L866, L867, L868, L869, L870 and L877 are found in L2,
negative in L1. Listed 19 November 2011.
- L1304, L1305, L1306, L1307 are found at approximately M357. Listed 7 October 2012.
- L147.6 is found at approximately M317. Listed 1 December 2012.
Y-DNA haplogroup L is found primarily as sub-group L1a (former L1) in India, Southern Pakistan
and Sri Lanka. Paragroups L1b* and L1b1* (former L2*) and sub-group L1b1a (former L2a) are found at low frequencies
in the Middle East and Europe. Sub-group L1c (former L3) is found mainly in northern Pakistan, northern
India and west-central Asia.
- M22 and M295 were considered equivalent to M11, M20, M61 and M185 in previous versions of the tree. In May 2011
a small group of members of the Y-Haplogroup L Project were found to be negative for all known subgroup SNPs of L
and in addition M295- despite being M20+ and/or M61+. Further testing has confirmed that M22 is also negative in
this group. The tree has been revised to reflect this discovery. A new SNP L595 has been discovered in a member of
the M22- M295- group and has been confirmed in a second member. This SNP therefore designates a new subclade: L2.
Several new SNPs have been discovered in L2 and are being investigated.
- Identical SNPs that were discovered separately are listed in alphabetical order, not necessarily in
the order of discovery, and separated by "/". Example: M61/Page43.
Balanovsky et al,
Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region.
Molecular Biology and Evolution, 13 May 2011.
Behar et al,
Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host
Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Behar et al,
Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People.
Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Cinnioglu et al,
Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al,
A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported
by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes.
American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Deng et al, Evolution
and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence.
(pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Karafet et al,
New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup
Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008.
Karafet et al,
Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns,
and Microevolutionary Processes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics,
Kivisild et al,
The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste
Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Mohyuddin et al,
Detection of novel Y SNPs Provides Further Insights into Y chromosomal Variation in Pakistan.
Journal of Human Genetics, 2006.
Regueiro et al,
Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract)
Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Sengupta et al,
Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India
Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence
of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf)
American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction
of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome
and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Thangaraj et al,
Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population. (pdf)
Current Biology, 13:86-93, 2003.
Zhao et al,
Presence of Three Different Paternal Lineages among North Indians: A Study of 560 Y Chromosomes. (abstract)
Annals of Human Biology, 36(1):46-59, 2009.
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
The Y-Haplogroup L Project, Gareth Henson, Peter Hrechdakian.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2012:
- Added Behar et al (2010), Zhau et al (2009) on 9 April 2012.
- Moved PK3 from tree to Private on 6 August 2012.
- Moved L878, L879 from Investigation to tree; added L1304, L1305, L1306, L1307 to Investigation on 7 October 2012.
- Added L147.6 to Investigation on 1 December 2012.
Contact Person for Haplogroup L: