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|CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS: Added Redefined|
|SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2011 tree Confirmed within subclade Provisional Private Investigation|
O M175, P186, P191, P196
• O* -
• O1 MSY2.2
• • O1* -
• • O1a M119, Page20
• • • O1a* -
• • • O1a1 M307.1/P203.1
• • • • O1a1* -
• • • • O1a1a M101
• • • O1a2 M50, M103, M110
• O2 L463, L690, P31, M268
• • O2* -
• • O2a PK4
• • • O2a* -
• • • O2a1 M95
• • • • O2a1* -
• • • • O2a1a M88, M111
• • O2b IMS-JST022454, L272.2, M176//Page63/SRY465, M302, P49, Page92
• • • O2b* -
• • • O2b1 M312
• • • • O2b1* -
• • • • O2b1a 47z
• • • • O2b1b L682
• O3 M122, P198
• • O3* -
• • O3a M324, P93/Page79, P197, P199, P200
• • • O3a* -
• • • O3a1 L127.1, KL1/L465, KL2/L467
• • • • O3a1* -
• • • • O3a1a M121, DYS257_1/DYS257_2/P27.2_1/P27.2_2
• • • • O3a1b M164
• • • • O3a1c IMS-JST002611
• • • • • O3a1c* -
• • • • • O3a1c1 P103
• • • O3a2 IMS-JST021354/P201
• • • • O3a2* -
• • • • O3a2a M159/Page96
• • • • O3a2b M7
• • • • • O3a2b* -
• • • • • O3a2b1 M113, M188, M209
• • • • • • O3a2b1* -
• • • • • • O3a2b1a N5
• • • • O3a2c P164 (See Notes **)
• • • • • O3a2c* -
• • • • • O3a2c1 M134
• • • • • • O3a2c1* -
• • • • • • O3a2c1a M117, M133, Page23
• • • • • • • O3a2c1a* -
• • • • • • • O3a2c1a1 M162_1, M162_2
• • • • • • O3a2c1b P101
• • • O3a3 M300
• • • O3a4 M333
Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.
SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.
Y-DNA haplogroup O probably originated in East Asia and later migrated into the South Pacific. The lineage expanded into Taiwan (high frequency in the aboriginal Taiwanese), Indonesia, Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.
O3 is the predominant sub-group in China. The O1 and O2a lineages are found in Southeast Asian populations of Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia and southern China. The O2b sub-group is of high frequency in the Japanese and Korean populations.
Chen et al, Y Chromosome Genotyping and Genetic Structure of Zhuang Populations. (abstract) Acta Genetica Sinica, 33(12), 1060-72, 2006.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cox M P & Lahr M M, Y-Chromosome Diversity Is Inversely Associated with Language Affiliation in Paired Austronesian- and Papuan-Speaking Communities from Solomon Islands. (pdf) American Journal of Human Biology, 18:35-50, 2006.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Delfin et al, The Y Chromosome Landscape of the Philippines: Extensive Heterogeneity and Varying Genetic Affinities of Negrito and Non-Negrito Groups. (abstract) European Journal of Human Genetics, 19:224-30, 2011.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Dulik et al, Y-Chromosome Variation in Altaian Kazakhs Reveals a Common Paternal Gene Pool for Kazakhs and the Influence of Mongolian Expansions. (pdf) PLoS ONE, Vol. 6, Issue 3, e17548, 2011.
Hammer et al, Dual Origins of the Japanese: Common Ground for Hunter-gatherer and Farmer Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Journal of Human Genetics, 51:47-58, 2006.
Jin et al, Genetic Diversity of Two Haploid Markers in the Udegey Population from Southeastern Siberia. (abstract) American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 142:303-313, 2010.
Jin et al, The Peopling of Korea Revealed by Analyses of Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosomal Markers. PLoS One, vol 4(1):ed4210, 2009.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Karafet et al, Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 69:615-628, 2001.
Kayser et al, The Impact of the Austronesian Expansion: Evidence from mtDNa and Y Chromosome Diversity in the Admiralty Islands of Melanesia. Molecular Biology Evolution, 25(7):1362-1374, 2008.
Kayser et al, Independent Histories of Human Y Chromosomes from Melanesia and Australia. American Journal of Human Genetics, 68:173-190, 2001.
Kayser et al, Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y-Chromosome Gradients across the Pacific. MBE Advance Access published August 21, 2006.
Kayser et al. Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
Li et al, Paternal Genetic Affinity between Western Austronesians and Daic Populations BMC Evolutionary Biology, Vo. 15(8), p. 146, 2008.
Mohyuddin et al, Detection of Novel Y SNPs Provides Further Insights into Y Chromosomal Variation in Pakistan. Journal of Human Genetics, 2006.
Mona et al, Patterns of Y-chromosome Diversity Intersect with the Trans-New Guinea Hypothesis. Mol Biol Evol. 2007 Sep 10; [Epub ahead of print]
Nonaka et al, Y Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups in the Japanese Population and their Relationship to 16 Y-STR Polymorphisms. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 71:480-495, 2007.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Rootsi S, Human Y Chromosomal Variations in European Populations. (dissertation) Council of the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Oct 2004.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Scheinfeldt et al, Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
<Shi et al, Y-Chromosome Evidence of Southern Origin of the East Asian-Specific Haplogroup O3-M122. (abstract) American Journal of Human Genetics. 77:408-419, 2005.
Su et al, Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Tan S, et al, Y-chromosome Polymorphisms Define the Origin of the Mang, an Isolated Population in China. Annals of Human Biology, Sep;34(5):573-581, 2007
Thangaraj et al, Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population. (pdf) Current Biology, 13:86-93, 2003.
Xue Y, et al, Male Demography in East Asia: A North-South Contrast in Human Population Expansion Times. (abstract) Genetics, 172:2431-2439, 2006
Shi Yan et al, An Updated Tree of Y-chromosome Haplogroup O and Revised Phylogenetic Positions of Mutations P164 and PK4. European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication 20 April 2011; doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2011.64
Xue et al, A Spatial Analysis of Genetic Structure of Human Populations in China Reveals Distinct Difference between Maternal and Paternal Lineages. European Journal of Human Genetics, 16:705-17, 2008.
Zhao et al, Presence of Three Different Paternal Lineages among North Indians: A Study of 560 Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Annals of Human Biology, 36(1):46-59, 2009.
Zhong et al, Extended Y-chromosome Investigation Suggests Post-Glacial Migrations of Modern Humans into East Asia via the Northern Route. Molecular Biology, 28(1):717-727, 2011.
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
O...O3 Y-DNA Haplogroup Project, Denis Grigoriev.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2012:
Contact Person for Haplogroup O: Gareth Henson
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