Y-DNA Haplogroup T and its Subclades - 2012
The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the
Main Page. Directions for citing the document are given at
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Version History Last
revision date for this specific page: 7 October 2012
Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG
does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments
in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email
Alice Fairhurst if the differences need
clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.
T L445, L452, L455, L810,
M184/Page34/USP9Y+3178, M272, Page129
T1a M70/Page46, Page78
L299, L453, L454
T1a1a L208/Page2, L905
T1a2a P322, P328
Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
Private SNPs - After investigation these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree:
either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to a single surname or to a
small group of related males.
- M320 is downstream of M70. It was reported in a single Druze sample in Shen et
al (2004). Its placement relative to other SNPs under M70 is unknown. Listed 8 August 2012.
- P330 is downstream of L162. It was reported in a single Assyrian sample in Mendez
et al (2011). Its placement relative to L905 is unknown. Listed 8 August 2012.
- P327 is downstream of P322. It was reported in four closely related Palestinian
samples in Mendez et al (2011). Listed 8 August 2012.
- L1254 is downstream of L1255 and found in one branch of a Kuwaiti family.. Listed 7 October 2012.
SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples
and/or correct placement on the tree.
- L447 is located downstream of L446. Listed 30 October 2011.
- L906, L907 and Z709 are downstream of L905 and may be
equivalent to P77. Listed 23 January 2012.
- L947 is downstream of L162. Listed 8 August 2012.
- Haplogroup T was formerly called K2 and was first called T in the Karafet et al (2008) paper.
- Identical SNPs that were discovered separately are listed in alphabetical order, not necessarily in
the order of discovery, and separated by "/". Examples M184/USP9Y+3178.
Y-DNA haplogroup T is found at low frequencies
throughout Europe and in parts of the Middle East, North Africa, and East Africa.
A famous person in Haplogroup T was Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), the third President
of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Alonso et al,
The Place of the Basques in the European
Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of
Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
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Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas.
American Journal of Human Genetics, 73:524–539, (2003).
Cinnioglu et al,
Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al,
A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported
by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes.
American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Flores et al,
Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome
Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (pdf)
European Journal of Human Genetics,
Herrera et al,
Neolithic Patrilineal Signals Indicate that the Armenian Plateau was Repopulated by Agriculturalists.
European Journal of Human Genetics, 10.1038/ejhg.2011.192, 2011.
Karafet et al,
New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup
Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008.
Kivisild et al,
The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste
Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Mendez et al,
Increased Resolution of Y Chromosome Haplogroup T Defines Relationships among Populations of the Near East,
Europe, and Africa. Human Biology 83(1):39-53, 2011.
Regueiro et al,
Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract)
Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Semino et al,
Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf)
American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Rozen et al,
Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective
Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Sengupta et al,
Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India
Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence
of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf)
American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction
of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome
and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Su et al,
Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia
during the Last Ice Age. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Thangaraj et al,
Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population. (pdf)
Current Biology, 13:86-93, 2003.
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
The Y-DNA Haplogroup T (former K2) Project,
Gareth Henson, Peter Hrechdakian.
Haplogroup T - Walk Through the Y Project,
Paul Woods, Doyle Mathis, Gareth Henson.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2012:
- Added L905, L906, L907, Z709 on 23 January 2012.
- Moved L810 from SNPs under Investigation to the Tree and changed haplogroup description to read East Africa
rather than West Africa on 14 February 2012.
- Moved L446, L490, L905 to tree; moved M320, P327, P330 to Private; added L947, L1254, L1255 to Investigation
on 8 August 2012.
- L446 was listed on tree as L447. Error fixed on 17 August 2012.
- Mved L1255 from Investigation to tree; moved L1254 from Investigation to private on 7 October 2012.
Contact Person for Haplogroup T: