Y-DNA Haplogroup C and its Subclades - 2013
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 30 November 2013

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2012 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

C   IMS-JST029149, IMS-JST037816-80, M130/Page51/RPS4Y711, M216, P184, P255/P325,
       P260/P324, Page85, V77, V183, V199, V232
�    C*   -
�    C1   IMS-JST037816, M8, M105, M131, P122
�   �    C1*   -
�   �    C1a   P121
�    C2   M38
�   �    C2*   -
�   �    C2a   M208
�   �    �     C2a*   -
�   �    �     C2a1   P33_1, P33_2, P33_3
�   �    �     C2a2   P54
�    C3   M217, P44, Z1453
�   �    C3*   -
�   �    C3a   M93
�   �    C3b   L1373
�   �    �    C3b*   --
�   �    �    C3b1   P39
�   �    �    C3b2   M48
�   �    �   �    C3b2*   --
�   �    �   �    C3b2a   M77, M86
�   �    C3c   P53.1
�   �    C3d   P62
�   �    C3e   M546, Z1338/F2613
�   �    �    C3e*   -
�   �    �    C3e1   Z1300
�   �    �   �    C3e1*   -
�   �    �   �    C3e1a   M407
�   �    C3f   IMS-JST002613-27
�    C4   M347, P309
�   �    C4*   -
�   �    C4a   M210
�    C5   M356
�   �    C5*   -
�   �    C5a   P92
�    C6   V20, V71, V86, V182, V184, V219
�   �    C6a   V222

An Extended Version of C Tree with STR Marker Categories created by Content Expert Ray Banks.
Experimental C Tree by Ray Banks.

Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.

SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.


Y-DNA haplogroup C is thought to have arisen shortly after modern humans left Africa. Descendants spread mostly through southern and eastern Asia, but branches developed also in the Americas, islands south of Malaysia, Australia, central Asia and Europe.

C* is found on the Indian subcontinent, Sri Lanka and in parts of SE Asia. The rare C1-M8 lineage appears to be restricted to Japan. C2-M38 is found predominantly in New Guinea, Melanesia, and Polynesia. The C3-M217 lineage is most common of them all and is believed to have originated in southeast or central Asia, spreading from there into northern Asia and the Americas. C3-M217 is also found in low concentrations in eastern and central Europe, where it may represent evidence of the westward expansion of the Huns in the early Middle Ages and later the Mongols. Subhaplogroup P39 seems to be found only in the Americas. Z1338 combines both eastern and central Asian groups. C4 is found exclusively among aboriginal Australians and is dominant in that population. C5-M356 has a significant presence in India with a single instance known from Pakistan. C6-V20 is a recently recognized group most common in Europe, and developing information suggests it may more properly form a subgroup with C1.

Membership in the C-P53.1 subgroup of C3 has become difficult to define because of varied testing results among closely related men.

Using variation in STR markers, Zhong et al. in 2010 estimated the divergence times of some Hg C subgroups as they then existed as follows (thousands of years):
C1-M8 41.9�16.6
C3*-M217 32.6�14.1
C3b-P39 14.5�5.1
C3c-M48 9.3�3.3
C3d-M407 12.0�4.2
C3e-P53.1 14.4�5.1
C5-M356 33.3�19.1


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Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
C Haplogroup, Ed Martin, Ray Banks.
Haplogroup C Project, Ray Banks.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2013:

Contact Person for Haplogroup C: Ray H. Banks

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