Y-DNA Haplogroup C and its Subclades - 2013
The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the
Main Page. Directions for citing the document are given at
the bottom of the Main
Version History Last
revision date for this specific page: 30 November 2013
Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG
does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments
in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email
Alice Fairhurst if the differences need
clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.
C IMS-JST029149, IMS-JST037816-80,
M130/Page51/RPS4Y711, M216, P184, P255/P325,
P260/P324, Page85, V77, V183, V199, V232
C1 IMS-JST037816, M8, M105, M131, P122
C2a1 P33_1, P33_2, P33_3
C3 M217, P44, Z1453
C3b2a M77, M86
C3e M546, Z1338/F2613
C4 M347, P309
C6 V20, V71, V86, V182,
An Extended Version of C Tree with STR Marker Categories
created by Content Expert Ray Banks.
Experimental C Tree by Ray Banks.
Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution
criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple
confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.
- P55 is downstream of M130. Listed 5 August 2012.
SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples
and/or correct placement on the tree.
- PK2 has an uncertain location; the primer in Mohyuddin et al (2006) may be
incorrect. Listed 3 January 2013.
- F3952.1, IMS-JST645622+13 is located at approximately M217. Listed 21 March 2013.
- F3393/Z1426 is located at approximately M216 and negative in M217. Listed 7 May 2013.
- CTS11043 is located downstream of F3393/Z1426 and negative in M38. Listed 7 May 2013.
- F894 and Z4113 are located downstream from M217 and
upstream from F2613/Z1338. Listed 7 May 2013.
- CTS2457.1, CTS3385, F3880 and F4013 are located at
approximately Z1300 and negative in M407. Listed 7 May 2013.
- F1396, F1699 and F1756 are located at approximately M217
and having DYS488=null. Listed 7 May 2013.
- L1367, L1370, L1371 and L1372 are located at approximately
M77. Listed 25 May 2013.
- L1368 and L1369 are located at approximately M48. Listed
25 May 2013.
- F4002 is located downstream from L1373 and negative in P39 and M48 and having DYS388=14.
Listed 3 October 2013.
- CTS6678, CTS10729, CTS11058, Z7054, Z7174 are located downstream from P121 and parallel to Z1356. Listed 29 November 2013.
- Z1356, Z1357, Z7156, Z7159, Z7162 are located downstream from P121 and parallel to CTS6678. Listed 29 November 2013.
- F1067 is located downstream from M217, upstream from Z1338, and parallel to L1373. Listed 29 November 2013.
- M386, M401, M532, M504 are located at approximately L1373. Listed 30 November 2013.
- Identical SNPs that were discovered separately are listed in alphabetical order, not necessarily in
the order of discovery, and separated by "/". Example: M130/RPS4Y711.
Y-DNA haplogroup C is thought to have arisen shortly after modern humans left Africa.
Descendants spread mostly through southern and eastern Asia, but branches developed also in the Americas,
islands south of Malaysia, Australia, central Asia and Europe.
C* is found on the Indian subcontinent, Sri Lanka and in parts of SE Asia. The rare C1-M8 lineage appears to be
restricted to Japan. C2-M38 is found predominantly in New Guinea, Melanesia, and Polynesia. The C3-M217 lineage is most
common of them all and is believed to have originated in southeast or central Asia, spreading from there into
northern Asia and the Americas. C3-M217 is also found in low concentrations in eastern and central Europe, where it
may represent evidence of the westward expansion of the Huns in the early Middle Ages and later the Mongols.
Subhaplogroup P39 seems to be found only in the Americas. Z1338 combines both eastern and central Asian groups.
C4 is found exclusively among aboriginal Australians and is dominant in that population. C5-M356 has a significant
presence in India with a single instance known from Pakistan. C6-V20 is a recently recognized group most common in
Europe, and developing information suggests it may more properly form a subgroup with C1.
Membership in the C-P53.1 subgroup of C3 has become difficult to define because of varied testing results among closely related men.
Using variation in STR markers, Zhong et al. in 2010 estimated the divergence times of some Hg C subgroups as they then existed as follows
(thousands of years):
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ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
C Haplogroup, Ed Martin, Ray Banks.
Haplogroup C Project, Ray Banks.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2013:
- Moved V20 from Investigation to tree; added V71, V86, V182, V184, V219, V222 to tree; added V77, V183, V199,
V232 to Investigation on 3 January 2013.
- Moved PK2 from tree to Investigation; added Cruciani et al (2011) on 3 January 2013.
- Added F2613 on 9 January 2013.
- Added Naitoh et al (2013) on 21 March 2013.
- Added IMS-JST002613-27, IMS-JST029149, IMS-JST037816, IMS-JST37816-80 to tree;
added F3952.1, IMS-JST645622+13 to Investigation on 21 March 2013.
- Added Experimental C Tree by Ray Banks on 7 May 2013.
- Added CTS2457.1, CTS3385, CTS11043, F894, F1396, F1699, F1756, F3393/Z1426, F3880, F4013, Z4113 to Investigation
on 7 May 2013.
- Added L1367, L1368, L1369, L1370, L1371, L1372, L1373 to Investigation on 25 May 2013.
- Moved L1373 from Investigation to tree on 10 August 2013.
- Modified haplogroup description for Haplogroup C on 1 September 2013.
- Moved V77, V183, V199, V232 from Investigation to tree; added F4002 to Investigation on on 3 October 2013.
- Added CTS6678, CTS10729, CTS11058, F1067, Z1356, Z1357, Z7054, Z7174, Z7156, Z7159, Z7162 to Investigation on 29 November 2013.
- Added M546 to tree; added M386, M401, M532, M504 to Investigation; added Cristofaro et al (2013) on 30 November 2013.
Contact Person for Haplogroup C: Ray H. Banks