Y-DNA Haplogroup I and its Subclades - 2013
The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the Main Page.   Directions for citing the document are given at the bottom of the Main Page.
Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 7 December 2013

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2012 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

I   L41/PF3787, M170/PF3715, M258, P19_1, P19_2, P19_3, P19_4, P19_5, P38, P212, U179
    I*    - (unobserved)
    I1   CTS11022/S66, L64, L75, L80, L81, L118, L121/S62, L123, L124/S64, L125/S65, L157.1, L186, L187, L840,
             M253, M307.2/P203.2, M450/S109, P30, P40, S63, S107, S108, S110, S111
       I1*   -
       I1a   DF29/S438
           I1a*   -
           I1a1   CTS6364/Z2336
              I1a1*   -
              I1a1a   M227
                  I1a1a*   -
                  I1a1a1   M72
              I1a1b   L22/S142
                  I1a1b*   -
                  I1a1b1   P109
                  I1a1b2   L205/S239
                  I1a1b3   Z74
                     I1a1b3*   -
                     I1a1b3a   L287/S240
                         I1a1b3a*   -
                         I1a1b3a1   L258/S335
                            I1a2b3a1*   -
                            I1a1b3a1a   L296
                     I1a1b3b   L813/Z719
                  I1a1b4   L300/S241
           I1a2    S244/Z58
              I1a2*   -
              I1a2a   S246/Z59
                  I1a2a*   -
                  I1a2a1   S337/Z60, S439/Z61, Z62
                     I1a2a1*   -
                     I1a2a1a   S440/Z140, Z141
                         I1a2a1a*   -
                         I1a2a1a1   S1953/Z2535
                            I1a2a1a*   -
                            I1a2a1a1a   L338
                            I1a2a1a1b   CTS10937/Z2538
                         I1a2a1a2   F2642/S2169
                     I1a2a1b   S247/Z73
                         I1a2a1b*   -
                         I1a2a1b1   L1302
                     I1a2a1c   L573
                     I1a2a1d   L1248
                         I1a2a1d*   -
                         I1a2a1d1   L803
                  I1a2a2   Z382
              I1a2b   S296/Z138, Z139
                  I1a2b*   -
                  I1a2b1   Z2541
           I1a3   S243/Z63
              I1a3*   -
              I1a3a   L1237
       I1b   S249/Z131
    I2   L68/PF3781/S329, M438/P215/PF3853/S31
       I2*   -
       I2a   L460/PF3647/S238
           I2a*   -
           I2a1   P37.2
              I2a1*   -
              I2a1a   L158/PF4073/S433, L159.1/S169.1, M26/PF4056
                  I2a1a*   -
                  I2a1a1   L160/PF4013/S184
              I2a1b   L178/S328, M423
                  I2a1b*   -
                  I2a1b1   M359.2/P41.2
                  I2a1b2   L161.1/S185
                  I2a1b3   L621/S392
                     I2a1b3*   -
                     I2a1b3a   L147.2
              I2a1c   L233/S183
           I2a2   L35/PF3862/S150, L37/PF6900/S153, L181, M436/P214/PF3856/S33,
                           P216/PF3855/S30, P217/PF3854/S23, P218/S32
              I2a2*   -
              I2a2a   L34/PF3857/S151, L36/S152, L59, L368, L622, M223, P219/PF3859/S24,
                                 P220/S119, P221/PF3858/S120, P222/PF3861/U250/S118, P223/PF3860/S117,
                  I2a2a*   -
                  I2a2a1   CTS616, CTS9183
                     I2a2a1*   -
                     I2a2a1a   M284
                         I2a2a1a*   -
                         I2a2a1a1   L1195
                            I2a2a1a1*   -
                            I2a2a1a1a   L126/S165, L137/S166, L369
                            I2a2a1a1b   L1193
                     I2a2a1b   L1229
                         I2a2a1b*   -
                         I2a2a1b1   Z2054
                            I2a2a1b1*   -
                            I2a2a1b1a   L812/S391
                         I2a2a1b2   L1230
                     I2a2a1c   CTS10057, CTS10100
                         I2a2a1c1   L701, L702
                            I2a2a1c1*   -
                            I2a2a1c1a   P78
                            I2a2a1c1b   L699, L703
                                I2a2a1c1b*   -
                                I2a2a1c1b1   L704
                         I2a2a1c2   Z161
                            I2a2a1c2*   -
                            I2a2a1c2a   L801/S390
                                I2a2a1c2a*   -
                                I2a2a1c2a1   CTS1977
                                   I2a2a1c2a1*   -
                                   I2a2a1c2a1a   P95
                                   I2a2a1c2a1b   CTS1858
                                I2a2a1c2a2   CTS6433
                                   I2a2a1c2a2*   -
                                   I2a2a1c2a2a   Z78
                                       I2a2a1c2a2a*   -
                                       I2a2a1c2a2a1   L1198
                                          I2a2a1c2a2a1*   -
                                          I2a2a1c2a2a1a   Z190
                                              I2a2a1c2a2a1a*   -
                                              I2a2a1c2a2a1a1   S434/Z79
                                I2a2a1c2a3   L1290, L1317
                            I2a2a1c2b   L623, L147.4
                  I2a2a2   L1228
              I2a2b   L38/S154, L39/S155, L40/S156, L65.1/S159.1, L272.3
                  I2a2b*   -
                  I2a2b1   L533/S295
       I2b   L415, L416, L417
       I2c   L596/PF6907/S292, L597/S333
           I2c   -
           I2c1   L1251
           I2c2   CTS7767

Private SNPs are gradually being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:

Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.

SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.


Y-DNA haplogroup I is a European haplogroup, representing nearly one-fifth of the population. It is almost non-existent outside of Europe, suggesting that it arose in Europe. Estimates of the age of haplogroup I suggest that it arose prior to the last Glacial Maximum.

The two main subgroups of haplogroup I likely divided approximately 28,000 years ago:


Athey et al, Resolving the Placement of Haplogroup I-M223 in the Y-chromosome Phylogenetic Tree. (pdf) Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 1:54-55, 2005.
Battaglia et al, Y-chromosomal Evidence of the Cultural Diffusion of Agriculture in Southeast Europe European Journal of Human Genetics, 249. 2008.
Behar et al, Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People. Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Bosch et al, Paternal and Maternal Lineages in the Balkans Show a Homogeneous Landscape over Linguistis Barriers except for the Isolated Aromuns. Annals of Human Genetics, 70:459-87, (2006).
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
El Sibai et al, Geographical Structure of the Y-Chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A Coastal Inland Contrast, Annals of Human Genetics, 73:568-81, 2009. (abstract)
Francalacci et al, Low-Pass DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. Science: Vol. 341 no. 6145, pp. 565-569, DOI: 10.1126/science.1237947, 2 August 2013.
Ghiani, et al, Population data for Y-chromosome haplotypes defined by AmpFlSTR YFiler PCR amplification kit in North Sardinia (Italy), Collegium Antropologicum, 33 (2): 643-51, 2009.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Rootsi et al, Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow In Europe. American Journal of Human Genetics, 75:128-137, 2004.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics, 85:923-928, 2009.
Scheinfeldt et al, Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.
Sims et al, Sub-Populations Within the Major European and African Derived Haplogroups R1b3 and E3a Are Differentiated by Previously Phylogenetically Undefined Y-SNPs. Human Mutation: Mutation in Brief #940, Online, 2007.
Underhill et al, New Phylogenetic Relationships for Y-chromosome Haplogroup I: Reappraising its Phylogeography and Prehistory in Rethinking the Human Evolution, Mellars P, Boyle K, Bar-Yosef O, Stringer C, Eds. McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, UK, pp. 33-42, 2007b. (not available online)
Underhill et al, The Phylogeography of Y Chromosome Binary Haplotypes and the Origins of Modern Human Populations. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 65:43-62, 2001.
Underhill et al, Y Chromosome Sequence Variation and the History of Human Populations. (pdf) Nature Genetics, 26: 358-361, 2000.
Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC), A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups. Genome Research, 12:339-348, 2002.

Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
Haplogroup I Y-DNA Project, Bob Waterous.
Founder Haplotypes (Modal Haplotypes for Y-Haplogroup I Varieties), Ken Nordtvedt.
Y-DNA Haplogroup I Subclade I1, Phil Goff, Steve Transgrud, Yme Drost, Ken Nordtvedt, William Hartley and Paul Stone.
I1 Eastern Europe, Aleksandr Shtrunov.
Iberian I1 Project, Aaron Salles Torres.
I1>Z58+ and I1>Z63+ Project, Aaron Salles Torres, Julie Frame Falk.
I1-Z140 YDNA Project, William Hartley, Wim Penninx and Aleksandr Shtrunov.
Deep Ancestry of I1a DYS19=16 Cluster, Phil Goff.
I1b* Project Database, Timothy Weakley.
I1d - L22 Project, Yme Drost.
The I1d1 (I-P109) yDNA Haplogroup Project, Rebekah Canada.
I1d2 (L205+) Project, Yme Drost.
I2* Haplogroup Project, Bob May, Peter Hrechdakian.
Y-Haplogroup I2a Project, Bernie Cullen, Bill Morrow.
I2b1/M223 Y-Clan Study, Aaron Salles Torres.
I2b2 L38+ Project, Timothy Weakley.

Contact People for Haplogroup I: Phil Goff, Steve Trangsrud, and Aaron Salles Torres

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2013:

Back to Main Page
Back to Y-DNA Tree Trunk
Back to SNP Index
Back to Papers/Presentations Cited
Back to Glossary
Back to Listing Criteria

Copyright 2013. International Society of Genetic Genealogy. All Rights Reserved.