Y-DNA Haplogroup J and its Subclades - 2013
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 19 August 2013

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2012 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

J   12f2.1, L134/PF4539, M304/Page16/PF4609, P209/PF4584, S6/L60, S34, S35
    J*   -
   ; J1   L255, L321/PF4646, M267/PF4782
       J1*   -
       J1a   CTS5368/Z2215
           J1a*   -
           J1a1   M365.1
           J1a2   L136
              J1a2*   -
              J1a2a   P56
              J1a2b   P58/Page8/PF4698
                  J1a2b*   -
                  J1a2b1   L92.1, L93
                  J1a2b2   L147.1
                     J1a2b2*   -
                     J1a2b2a   L222.2
                         J1a2b2a*   -
                         J1a2b2a1   L65.2/S159.2
                  J1a2b3   L817
                     J1a2b3*   -
                     J1a2b3a   L818
                         J1a2b3a*   -
                         J1a2b3a1   L816
           J1a3   CTS15/Z1828
              J1a3*   -
              J1a3a   Z1842
    J2   M172/Page28/PF4908, L228/PF4895/S321
       J2*   -
       J2a   M410, L152, L212/PF4988, L559/PF4986
           J2a*   -
           J2a1   DYS413≤18, L26/Page55/PF5110/S57, L27/PF5111/S396
              J2a1*   -
              J2a1a   M47, M322
              J2a1b   M67/PF5137/S51
                  J2a1b*   -
                  J2a1b1   M92, M260/Page14
                     J2a1b1*   -   
                     J2a1b1a   L556, L560
                  J2a1b2   M166
                  J2a1b3   L210, L218, L227
              J2a1c   M68
              J2a1d   M319
              J2a1e   M339
              J2a1f   M419
              J2a1g   P81/PF4275
              J2a1h   L24/S286, L207.1
                  J2a1h*   -
                  J2a1h1   M158
                  J2a1h2   L25/PF5345/S399
                     J2a1h2*   -   
                     J2a1h2a    DYS445≤7
                         J2a1h2a*   -   
                         J2a1h2a1   L70/PF5434/S287, L397/PF5446, L398/PF5449
                            J2a1h2a1*   -
                            J2a1h2a1a   M137
                            J2a1h2a1b   M318
                     J2a1h2b   L243
                     J2a1h2c   L254
                     J2a1h2d   L192.2
                         J2a1h2d*   --
                         J2a1h2d1   L271
              J2a1i   L88.2, L198
           J2a2   L581/S398
              J2a2*   -
              J2a2a   P279/PF5065
                  J2a2a*   -
                  J2a2a1   M340
       J2b   L282, M12, M102, M221, M314/PF4939
           J2b*   -
           J2b1   M205
           J2b2   M241
              J2b2*   -
              J2b2a   L283
                  J2b2a*   -
                  J2b2a1   Z1296
                     J2b2a1*   -
                     J2b2a1a   Z1297, Z1298
                         J2b2a1a*   -
                         J2b2a1a1   Z631, Z639

Experimental J1 Tree by Victor Mas.

Private SNPs are gradually being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:

Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.

SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.

Caveats for the information from Karafet et al (2008):


Y-DNA haplogroup J evolved in the ancient Near East and was carried into North Africa, Europe, Central Asia, Pakistan and India. J2 lineages originated in the area known as the Fertile Crescent. The main spread of J2 into the Mediterranean area is thought to have coincided with the expansion of agricultural peoples during the Neolithic period. The timing of the demographic events that brought J2 to Central Asia, Pakistan, and India is not yet known. J1 lineages may have a more southern origin, as they are more often found in the Levant region, other parts of the Near East, and North Africa, with a sparse distribution in the southern Mediterranean flank of Europe, and in Ethiopia.

There is a descending gradient in the frequency of occurrence of haplogroup J from the Middle East toward the northwest of Europe, reaching about 3% of the population on the northwest Atlantic coast. The occurrence of J in Europe is undoubtedly due both to the Neolithic expansion and to episodic migrations, though the relative proportion of those two sources is controversial and may not be the same in different locations.

A significant fraction of Jews belong to haplogroup J, but Jews represent a small minority of the European members of the haplogroup. The "Cohen Modal Haplotype" is a specific set of six Y-STR marker values that occurs in both J1 and J2, though at a much higher frequency in J1.


Adams et al, The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula, American Journal of Human Genetics, 83(6): 725-36, 2008.
Alonso et al, The Place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Athey T W, Schrack B E, A New Subclade of Y Haplogroup J2b. (pdf) Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 4(1):27-34, 2008.
Balanovsky et al, Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 13 May 2011.
Behar et al, Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Behar et al, Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People. Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Bertoncini et al, The Dual Origin of Tati-speakers from Dagestan as Written in the Genealogy of Uniparental Variants. (abstract) American Journal of Human Biology, Volume 24, Issue 4, pages 391-399, July/August 2012.
Biro et al, A Y-Chromosomal Comparison of the Madjars (Kazakhstan) and the Magyars (Hungary), American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139(3): 305-10, 2009. (abstract)
Bosch et al, Paternal and Maternal Lineages in the Balkans Show a Homogeneous Landscape over Linguistis Barriers except for the Isolated Aromuns. Annals of Human Genetics, 70:459-87, (2006).
Capelli et al, Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 2005.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Cruciani et al, Tracing Past Human Male Movements in Northern/Eastern Africa and Western Eurasia: New Clues from Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12. (pdf) Molecular Biology and Evolution 24(6):1300-1311, 2007.
Di Giacomo et al, Y Chromosomal Haplogroup J as a Signature of the Post-Neolithic Colonization of Europe. (pdf) Human Genetics, 115:357-371, 2004.
El Sibai et al, Geographical Structure of the Y-Chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A Coastal Inland Contrast, Annals of Human Genetics, 73:568-81, 2009. (abstract)
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
Francalacci et al, Low-Pass DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. Science: Vol. 341 no. 6145, pp. 565-569, DOI: 10.1126/science.1237947, 2 August 2013.
Herrera et al, Neolithic Patrilineal Signals Indicate that the Armenian Plateau was Repopulated by Agriculturalists. European Journal of Human Genetics, 10.1038/ejhg.2011.192, 2011.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Karafet et al, Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 69:615-628, 2001.
King et al, The Coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-Chromosome Models of Archaic Greek Colonization of the Western Mediterranean, BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11: 69, 2011.
King et al, Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics. 72:205214. 2008.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Myres et al, (2007), Y-chromosome Short Tandem Repeat DYS458.2 Non-concensus Alleles Occur Independently in Both Binary Haplogroups J1-M267 and R1b3-M405. Croatian Medical Journal, 48, 2007.
Nasidze et al, MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 69:401-412, 2005.
Nasidze et al, Testing Hypotheses of Language Replacement in the Caucasus: Evidence from the Y-chromosome, Human Genetics 112 (3): 255-61, 2003.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Semino et al, Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 74:1023-1034, 2004.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Shou et al, Y-Chromosome Distributions among Populations in Northwest China Identify Significant Contribution from Central Asian Pastoralists and Lesser Influence of Western Eurasians. (abstract) Journal of Human Genetics, 55: 314-22, 2010.
Zalloua et al, Y Chromosome Diversity in Lebanon is Structured by Recent Historical Events. (abstract) The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 82, Issue 4, 873-882, 28 March 2008.
Zalloua et al, Y Chromosome Diversity in Lebanon is Structured by Recent Historical Events. (abstract) The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 82, Issue 4, 873-882, 28 March 2008.
Zhao et al, Presence of Three Different Paternal Lineages among North Indians: A Study of 560 Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Annals of Human Biology, 36(1):46-59, 2009.

Additional Resources:

ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
The Y-Haplogroup J DNA Project, Bonnie Schrack and Tim Janzen.
J1* Haplogroup Y-DNA Project, Peter Hrechdakian, James Honeychuck, Paul Givargidze.
J1b (J-M365) Haplogroup Y-DNA Project, Ricardo Costa de Oliveira.
J1c3 Haplogroup Y-DNA Project, Jaber Al Haddad.
J1c3d1 (J-L222.2) Haplogroup Y-DNA Project.
J2 Haplogroup Y-DNA Project, Angela Cone.
J2 Haplogroup Arab Y-DNA Project, Kamal Al-Gazzah.
J2 Haplogroup Jewish Y-DNA Project, Debra Katz.
The J2b-M102 DNA Project, Roman Sychev.
J2b (455=8) Y-DNA Project.
J2Plus Project, Donn Devine.
J-L24 Y-DNA Project, Alfred Aberto, Debra Katz, Tim Janzen, Kamal Al-Gazzah.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2013:

Contact People for Haplogroup J: Bonnie Schrack or Tim Janzen

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