Y-DNA Haplogroup T and its Subclades - 2013
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 31 December 2013

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2012 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

T   L445, L452, L455/PF5670, L810, M184/Page34/USP9Y+3178, M272/PF5667, Page129
    T*   -
    T1   L206, L490, M193
       T1*   -
       T1a   M70/Page46/PF5662, Page78
           T1a*   -
           T1a1   L162/Page21, L299/PF5675, L453/PF5617, L454
              T1a1*   -
              T1a1a   L208/Page2, L905
                  T1a1a*   -
                  T1a1a1   Z709
                     T1a1a1*   -
                     T1a1a1a   CTS8512, Z710, Z713, Z714
                         T1a1a1a*   -
                         T1a1a1a1   CTS2860, CTS7225/L907, CTS11968, L906, P77
                            T1a1a1a1*   -
                            T1a1a1a1a   CTS6507
                                T1a1a1a1a*   -
                                T1a1a1a1a1   CTS9882
                  T1a1a2   P321
                     T1a1a2*   -
                     T1a1a2a   P317
                  T1a1a3   PF7443, PF7444, PF7445, PF7453, PF7457, PF7458
           T1a2   L131
              T1a2*   -
              T1a2a   P322, P328
              T1a2b   L446
           T1a3   L1255

Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
Private SNPs - After investigation these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree: either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to a single surname or to a small group of related males.

SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.


Y-DNA haplogroup T is found at low frequencies throughout Europe and in parts of the Middle East, North Africa, and East Africa. A famous person in Haplogroup T was Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), the third President of the United States from 1801 to 1809.


Alonso et al, The Place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Bortolini et al, Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas. American Journal of Human Genetics, 73:524539, (2003).
Capredon et al, Tracing Arab-Islamic Inheritance in Madagascar: Study of the Y-chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA in the Antemoro. PLoS ONE 8(11): e80932. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080932, 2013.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (pdf) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
Francalacci et al, Low-Pass DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. Science: Vol. 341 no. 6145, pp. 565-569, DOI: 10.1126/science.1237947, 2 August 2013.
Herrera et al, Neolithic Patrilineal Signals Indicate that the Armenian Plateau was Repopulated by Agriculturalists. European Journal of Human Genetics, 10.1038/ejhg.2011.192, 2011.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Mendez et al, Increased Resolution of Y Chromosome Haplogroup T Defines Relationships among Populations of the Near East, Europe, and Africa. Human Biology 83(1):39-53, 2011.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Su et al, Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Thangaraj et al, Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population. (pdf) Current Biology, 13:86-93, 2003.

Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
The Y-DNA Haplogroup T (former K2) Project, Gareth Henson, Peter Hrechdakian.
Haplogroup T - Walk Through the Y Project, Paul Woods, Doyle Mathis, Gareth Henson.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2013:

Contact Person for Haplogroup T: Gareth Henson

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