Y-DNA Haplogroup C and its Subclades - 2014

The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the Main Page.   Directions for citing the document are given at the bottom of the Main Page.
Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 17 November 2014

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2013 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.

SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.

Contact Person for Haplogroup C: Ray H. Banks

Link to Experimental Composite Y-DNA Haplogroup C Tree by Ray Banks.

C   M130/Page51/RPS4Y711, M216, IMS-JST029149, IMS-JST037816-80, P184, P255/P325, P260/P324, Page85, V77, V183, V199, V232
C*   -
C1   F3393/Z1426
• • C1*   -
• • C1a   CTS11043
• • • C1a*   -
• • • C1a1   M8, CTS219, CTS231, CTS483, CTS667, CTS1208, CTS1994, CTS2278, CTS2609, CTS3357, CTS3368/PF693, CTS3370, CTS3487, CTS3825, CTS4198, CTS4318/Z1392, CTS4324, CTS4866, CTS5312/Z1394, CTS5794/Z1396, CTS5942, CTS6670, CTS7285, CTS8419, CTS8781, CTS9122, CTS9291, CTS9351, CTS10312/Z1412, CTS11072/Z1425, CTS11382/Z1428, CTS11581/Z1429, CTS11893/Z1430, IMS-JST037816, M105, M131, P122
• • • • C1a1*   -
• • • • C1a1a   P121
• • • •  C1a1a*   -
• • • •  C1a1a1   CTS6678, CTS10729, CTS11058, Z7054, Z7174, Z7180, Z7190, Z7196, Z7643, Z7650, Z7842, Z7968, Z7972, Z7985, Z7986, Z7988, Z7989, Z7991
• • • •  C1a1a2   Z1356, CTS7128/Z1357, Z4160, Z7156, Z7159, Z7162, Z7228, Z7231, Z7232, Z7234, Z7237, Z7856, Z7869, Z7870, Z7898, Z7899, Z7900, Z7901, Z7902, Z7903, Z7904
• • • C1a2   V20, V71, V86, V182, V184, V219
• • • • C1a2*   -
• • • • C1a2a   V222
• • C1b   F1370
• • • C1b*   -
• • • C1b1   M356
• • • • C1b1*   -
• • • • C1b1a   P92, F930/K105, K43, K45, K59, K61, K69, K78, K83, K88, K90, K94, K99, K108, K129, K134, K141, K146, K147, K156, K161, K162, K181, K184, K185, K186, K187, K188, K205, K245, K246, K249, K252, K260, K261, K267, K280, K293, K310, K317, K319, K320, K323, K327, K331, K358, K377, K396, K398, K401, K402, K414, K415, K417, K426, K427, K435, Z12426, Z12427, Z12428, Z12429, Z12430, Z12431, Z12432, Z12433, Z12434, Z12435, Z12436, Z12437, Z12438, Z12439, Z12440, Z12441, Z12442, Z12443, Z12444, Z12445, Z12446, Z12447, Z12448, Z12449, Z12450, Z12451, Z12452, Z12453, Z12454, Z12455, Z12456, Z12457, Z12458, Z12459, Z12460, Z12461, Z12462, Z12463, Z12464, Z12465, Z12466, Z12467, Z12468, Z12469, Z12470, Z12471, Z12472, Z12473, Z12474, Z12475, Z12476, Z12477, Z12478, Z12479
• • • •  C1b1a*   -
• • • •  C1b1a1   Z5895, K40, K41, K56, K70, K74, K79, K102, K104, K113, K119, K136, K138, K153, K159, K175, K191, K195, K196, K197, K198, K223, K231, K234, K238, K258, K274, K277, K296, K297, K303, K308, K309, K324, K332, K333, K341, K361, K382, K395, K399, K400, K404, K406, K407, K412, K429, K434, Z12482, Z12483, Z12484, Z12485, Z12486, Z12487, Z12488, Z12489, Z12490, Z12491, Z12492, Z12493, Z12494, Z12495, Z12496
• • • •  C1b1a1*   -
• • • •  C1b1a1a   K96, K107, K131, K163, K233, K272, K283, K425, Z12480, Z12481, Z12497, Z12498, Z12499, Z12500, Z12502, Z12503
• • • •  ••  C1b1a1a*   -
• • • •  ••  C1b1a1a1   K42, K44, K60, K68, K77, K86, K101, K117, K118, K135, K140, K143, K209, K227, K235, K236, K244, K276, K300, K316, K338, K362, K418/Z12513, K444, Z12504, Z12505, Z12506, Z12507, Z12508, Z12509, Z12510.1/Z15303.1, Z12511, Z12512, Z12514
• • • •  • • • C1b1a1a1*   -
• • • •  • • • C1b1a1a1a   Z5896, K92, K225, K428, Z12515, Z12516, Z12517, Z12518, Z12519, Z12520
• • • •  • • • • C1b1a1a1a*   -
• • • •  • • • • C1b1a1a1a1   K193, Z12521
• • • •  • • • •  C1b1a1a1a1*   -
• • • •  • • • •  C1b1a1a1a1a   Z12522
• • • •  • • • •  C1b1a1a1a1a*   -
• • • •  • • • •  C1b1a1a1a1a1   K466, K468, Z12527, Z12528
• • • •  • • • •  C1b1a1a1a1a1*   -
• • • •  • • • •  C1b1a1a1a1a1a   K469, K470, Z12530
• • • •  • • • •  • • • C1b1a1a1a1a1a*   -
• • • •  • • • •  • • • C1b1a1a1a1a1a1   Z5898
• • • • C1b1b   Z5900, Z12318, Z12319, Z12320, Z12321, Z12322, Z12323, Z12324, Z12325, Z12326, Z12327, Z12328, Z12329, Z12330, Z12331, Z12332, Z12333, Z12334, Z12335, Z12336, Z12337, Z12338, Z12339, Z12340, Z12341, Z12342, Z12343, Z12344, Z12345, Z12346, Z12347, Z12348, Z12349, Z12350, Z12351, Z12352, Z12353, Z12354, Z12355, Z12356, Z12357, Z12358, Z12359, Z12360, Z12361, Z12362, Z12363, Z12364, Z12365, Z12366, Z12367, Z12368, Z12369, Z12370, Z12371, Z12372, Z12373, Z12374, Z12375, Z12376, 12377, Z12378, Z12379, Z12380, Z12381, Z12382, Z12383, Z12384, Z12385, Z12386, Z12387, Z12388, Z12389, Z12390, Z12391, Z12392, Z12393, Z12394, Z12395, Z12396, Z12397, Z12398, Z12399, Z12400, Z12401, Z12402, Z12403, Z12404, Z12405, Z12406, Z12407, Z12408, Z12409, Z12410, Z12411, Z12412, Z12413, Z12414, Z12415, Z12416, Z12417, Z12418, Z12419, Z12420, Z12421, Z12422, Z12423, Z12424, Z12425
• • • C1b2   M38
• • • • C1b2*   -
• • • • C1b2a   M208
• • • •  C1b2a*   -
• • • •  C1b2a1   P33_1, P33_2, P33_3
• • • •  C1b2a2   P54
• • C1c   M347, P309
• • • C1c*   -
• • • C1c1   M210
C2   M217, P44, Z1453
• • C2*   -
• • C2a   M93
• • C2b   L1373, F1396, F1906, F2386, F2661, F3348, F3447, F3738, F3752, F3769, F3776, F3783, F3787, F3805, F3831, F3847, F3851, F3904, F3914, F3923, F3929, F3950, F3951, F3954, F3972, F3977, F3980, F3981, F3982, F3986, F4012
• • • C2b*   --
• • • C2b1   F1699, F1788, F3927, F4032, FGC16324, FGC16362, FGC16611, Z22209, Z22210
• • • • C2b1*   --
• • • • C2b1a   F3918, F4015
• • • •  C2b1a*   --
• • • •  C2b1a1   P39
• • • •  C2b1a2   F1756, F3985, F3613, F3647/M1923, F3825, F3844, F3868, F3896, F3937, F3955, F3971, F4006, F4017
• • • •  C2b1a2*   -
• • • •  C2b1a2a   F3830
• • • • C2b1b   M48
• • • •  C2b1b*   --
• • • •  C2b1b1   M77, M86
• • • • C2b1c   F1918, F4002, F966, F2007, F2914, F3747, F3770, F3779, F3791, F3795, F3810, F3827, F3834, F3897, F3919, F3932, F3939, F3945, F3991, F4023, F4031, F4141, M504, M546
• • • •  C2b1c*   =
• • • •  C2b1c1   M401
• • C2c   P53.1
• • C2d   P62
• • C2e   F2613/Z1338
• • • C2e*   -
• • • C2e1   Z1300, CTS1019, CTS4021/Z1301, CTS4590, F2982, F3895, K37, Z3874, Z4040, Z8441, Z8446, Z12153, Z12252, Z12257, Z12258
• • • • C2e1*   -
• • • • C2e1a   CTS2657, CTS11990, F3755, F3921, F3949, F3967, F4027, F4035, Z16231, Z16232, Z16233
• • • •  C2e1a*   -
• • • •  C2e1a1   CTS8579, F3737, F3739, F3836, F3883, F4040
• • • •  C2e1a1*   -
• • • •  C2e1a1a   F3784, F3785, F3850, F3853
• • • •  • • C2e1a1a*   -
• • • •  • • C2e1a1a1   M407
• • • • C2e1b   Z8440, F3880, Z3994, Z12209
• • • •  C2e1b*   -
• • • •  C2e1b1   F1319, F1673, F3777, F3797.2/Z2201.2, F3799, Z12177, Z12179, Z12202, Z12205, Z12253, Z12254, Z12255, Z12256
• • • •  C2e1b1*   -
• • • •  C2e1b1a   F3735, F3748, F3750/M4236, F3806
• • • •  C2e1b2   CTS3385
• • • C2e2   F845, CTS3958, CTS5126, CTS6704/M8145, CTS10923, CTS12931, K500, K502, K503, K504, K505, K506, K507, K508, K509, K510, K546, K547, K548, K549, K550, K551, K553, K554, Z12259, Z12260, Z12261, Z12262, Z12263, Z12264, Z12265, Z12266, Z12267, Z12268, Z12269, Z12270, Z12271, Z12272, Z12273, Z12274, Z12275
• • • • C2e2*   -
• • • • C2e2a   K516, K511, K512, K513, K514, K515, K517, K518, K519, K520, K521, K522/K543, K523, K524, K525, K526, K527, K528, K529, K530, K531, K532, K533, K534, K536, K537, K538, K539, K540, K542, K544, K545, Z12276, Z12277, Z12278, Z12279, Z12280, Z12281, Z12282, Z12283, Z12284, Z12285, Z12286, Z12287, Z12288, Z12289, Z12290, Z12291, Z12292, Z12293, Z12294, Z12295, Z12296, Z12297, Z12298, Z12299, Z12300, Z12301, Z12302, Z12303, Z12304, Z12305, Z12306, Z12307, Z12308, Z12309, Z12310, Z12311, Z12312, Z12313, Z12314, Z12315, Z12316, Z12317
• • C2f   F978/IMS-JST002613-27

Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.

SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.


Y-DNA haplogroup C is thought to have arisen shortly after modern humans left Africa. Descendants spread mostly through southern and eastern Asia, but branches developed also in the Americas, islands south of Malaysia, Australia, central Asia and Europe.

C* is found on the Indian subcontinent, Sri Lanka and in parts of SE Asia. The uncommon C1-M8 lineage appears to be restricted to Japan. C-M38 is found predominantly in New Guinea, Melanesia, and Polynesia. The C-M217 lineage is most common of them all and is believed to have originated in southeast or central Asia, spreading from there into northern Asia and the Americas. C-M217 is also found in low concentrations in eastern and central Europe, where it may represent evidence of the westward expansion of the Huns in the early Middle Ages and later the Mongols. Subhaplogroup P39 seems to be found only in the Americas. C-Z1338 combines both eastern and central Asian groups. C-M347 is found exclusively among aboriginal Australians and is dominant in that population. C-M356 has a significant presence in southern Asia. C-V20 is most common in Europe.

Using variation in STR markers, Zhong et al. in 2010 estimated the divergence times of some Hg C subgroups as they then existed as follows (thousands of years):
C-M8       41.9 ± 16.6
C-M356   33.3 ± 19.1
C-M217   32.6 ± 14.1
C-P39      14.5 ± 5.1
C-M48       9.3 ± 3.3
C-P53.1   14.4 ± 5.1
C-M407   12.0 ± 4.2


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Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
C Haplogroup, Ed Martin, Ray Banks.
Haplogroup C Project, Ray Banks.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2014:

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