Y-DNA Haplogroup N and its Subclades - 2015

The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the Main Page.   Directions for citing the document are given at the bottom of the Main Page.
Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 4 February 2015

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Ray H. Banks if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2014 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.

SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.

Paragroups, subclades ending with an asterisk (*) indicate that some individuals do not test positive for any snps downstream. Since this fact is commonly known, paragroups are being omitted to simplify the display of SNPs.

Contact People for Haplogroup N: Eugene Matyushonok, Marja Pirttivaara, and Vladimir Volkov

Link to Experimental Composite Y-DNA Haplogroup N Tree by Ray Banks.

N   M231/Page91, M232/M2188
N1   CTS11499/L735/M2291
• • N1a   P189.2
• • N1b   L732
• • • N1b1   L731, L733
• • N1c   L729.1/M2087.1/Z15.1/Z548.1
• • • N1c1   M46/Page70/Tat, L395/M2080, P105
• • • • N1c1a   M178, P298
• • • •  N1c1a1   L708/Z1951, F4325/L839
• • • •  N1c1a1a   L392, L1026/Z1973
• • • •  • • N1c1a1a1   CTS2929/VL29
• • • •  • • • N1c1a1a1a   L550/S431
• • • •  • • • • N1c1a1a1a1   L1025
• • • •  • • • •  N1c1a1a1a1a   M2783
• • • •  • • • •  •  N1c1a1a1a1a1   L149.2, L551
• • • •  • • • •  •  N1c1a1a1a1a2   BY158/Z17902
• • • •  • • • •  • •  N1c1a1a1a1a2a   L591
• • • •  • • • •  • •  N1c1a1a1a1a2b   L1027
• • • •  • • • •  •  N1c1a1a1a1a3   FGC13372/Z16975
• • • •  • • • •  •  N1c1a1a1a1a4   Y4756/Z16981
• • • •  • • • •  • •  N1c1a1a1a1a4a   CTS8173
• • • •  • • • •  N1c1a1a1a1b   Y4706
• • • •  • • • N1c1a1a1b   L1022
• • • •  • • N1c1a1a2   Z1936, CTS10082
• • • •  • • • N1c1a1a2a   Z1925, Z1935
• • • •  • • • • N1c1a1a2a1   CTS1737/Z1927
• • • •  • • • •  N1c1a1a2a1a   Z1941
• • • •  • • • •  N1c1a1a2a1a1   Z1940
• • • •  • • • N1c1a1a2b   L1034
• • • N1c2   F1008/L666
• • • • N1c2a   M128
• • • • N1c2b   P43
• • • •  N1c2b1   P63
• • • •  N1c2b2   L665

Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
Private SNPs - After investigation these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree: either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to a single surname or to a small group of related males.

SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.


Y-DNA haplogroup N is found throughout Northern Eurasia. Possible points of origin include south-western China, from which the population spread both toward the Baltic region and into Siberia about 10,000 years ago through the Altai region. The dominant N-M46 branch is found widely distributed in Siberia and in northern Europe. At its western extent, the greatest concentration is found among Finns, Latvians and Lithuanians. The N-L708 is the only branch of N-M178 which was found west of the Urals and the N-L550 is typical for the South-Baltic region of Lithuanians, Belorussians and Polish. Plus it is found in Scandinavians and at a concentration of less than 1 percent for the British Isles. N-L1034 is typical for Hungarian samples and indicates the Ugric marker within N-M46.
The less common N-M128 lineage shows a scattered distribution in Asia, with small concentrations in areas of Kazakhstan, Korea and China. The N-P43 branch shows two clusters, one in the Ural-Volga area and the other further east. The undifferentiated N1* population is widely distributed at low levels of occurrence with a weak concentration in Cambodia and southern China. Haplogroup N has also been found at moderate concentration in eastern Europe and at low concetration in Anatolia.


Balanovsky et al, Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context. American Journal of Human Genetics, 82(1):236-250, 2008.
Behar et al, Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Behar et al, Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People. Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (pdf) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
Gayden et al, The Himalayas as a Directional Barrier to Gene Flow. American Journal of Human Genetics, 80(5):884-894, 2007.
Hammer et al, Dual Origins of the Japanese: Common Ground for Hunter-gatherer and Farmer Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Journal of Human Genetics, 51:47-58, 2006.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Karlsson et al, Y-chromosome Diversity in Sweden - A Long-time Perspective. (pdf) European Journal of Human Genetics, 14:963-970, 2006.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Rootsi et al., A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe. European Journal of Human Genetics. 15: 204-211,01 Feb 2007.
Rootsi S, Human Y Chromosomal Variations in European Populations. (dissertation) Council of the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Oct 2004.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Wang et al, Inferring Human History in East Asia from Y Chromosomes. Investigative Genetics, doi: 10.1186/2041-2223-4-11, 2014.
Zhong et al, Extended Y-chromosome Investigation Suggests Post-Glacial Migrations of Modern Humans into East Asia via the Northern Route. Molecular Biology, 28(1):717-727, 2011.

Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
N North Eurasian YDNA Project, Vladimir Volkov.
N Y-DNA Haplogroup Project, Robert Andersen.
N1c1 Y-DNA Project, Eugene Matyushonok.
Nobility of Grand Duchy of Lithuania Y-DNA&mtDNA Project, Stanislaw Plewako.
Rurikid Dynasty DNA Project, Andrzej Bajor.
Rurikid and Gediminid Princes Report, Andrzej Bajor.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2015:

Back to Main Page
Back to Y-DNA Tree Trunk
Back to SNP Index
Back to Papers/Presentations Cited
Back to Glossary
Back to Listing Criteria

Copyright 2015. International Society of Genetic Genealogy. All Rights Reserved.

ISOGG logo