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Version History Last revision date for this specific page: 1 January 2015
Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Ray H. Banks if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.
|LINKS: Main Page Y-DNA Tree Trunk SNP Index Papers/Presentations Cited Glossary Listing Criteria|
|CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS: Added Redefined|
|SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2014 tree Confirmed within subclade Provisional Private Investigation|
The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.
SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.
Paragroups, subclades ending with an asterisk (*) indicate that some individuals do not test positive for any snps downstream. Since this fact is commonly known, paragroups are being omitted to simplify the display of SNPs.
Contact Person for Haplogroup P: Ray Banks
P or K2b2 P295/PF5866/S8, 92R7_1, 92R7_2,
• P1 or K2b2a M45/PF5962, F1857/P337/Page83/PF5901, M74/N12/PF5963, P27.1_1/P207, P27.1_2, P69, P226/PF5879, P228/PF5927, P230/PF5925, P235/PF5946, P237/PF5873, P239/PF5930, P240/PF5897, P243/PF5874, P244/PF5896, P281/PF5941, P282/PF5932, P283/PF5966, P284
• • Q or K2b2a1 M242
• • R or K2b2a2 M207/Page37/UTY2, etc.
SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.
Y-DNA haplogroup P, an offshoot of Haplogroup K(xLT), originated in Central Asia some 35,000 years ago; sites in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and southern Siberia have been offered as the likely point of first appearance. Haplogroup P is best represented by its two immediate subclades, haplogroups Q and R, which expanded to become the dominant haplogroups in, respectively, the Americas and Europe.
Behar et al,
Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host
Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Behar et al, Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People. Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Bortolini et al, Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas. American Journal of Human Genetics, 73:524-539, 2003.
Capelli et al, Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 2005.
Delfin et al, The Y Chromosome Landscape of the Philippines: Extensive Heterogeneity and Varying Genetic Affinities of Negrito and Non-Negrito Groups. (abstract) European Journal of Human Genetics, 19:224-30, 2011.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Derenko et al, Contrasting patterns of Y-Chromosome variation in South Siberian populations from Baikal and Altai-Sayan regions, Human Genetics 118: 591-604, 2006.
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (pdf) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
Karafet et al, Improved Phylogenetic Resolution and Rapid Diversification of Y-chromosome Haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia. European Journal of Human Genetics, 1-5, 2014.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Kayser et al. Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Nasidze et al, MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 69:401-412, 2005.
Rootsi et al, Phylogenetic Applications of Whole Y-chromosome Sequences and the Near Eastern Origin of Ashkenazi Levites. Nature Communications 4, Article number: 2928, doi:10.1038/ncomms3928, 2013.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Su et al, Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Thangaraj et al, Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population. (pdf) Current Biology, 13:86-93, 2003.
Xue et al, A Spatial Analysis of Genetic Structure of Human Populations in China Reveals Distinct Difference between Maternal and Paternal Lineages. European Journal of Human Genetics, 16:705-17, 2008.
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