The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the Main Page. Directions for citing the document are given at the bottom of the Main Page.
Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Ray Banks if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.
|LINKS: Main Page Y-DNA Tree Trunk SNP Index Papers/Presentations Cited Glossary Listing Criteria|
|FONT COLORS: Newly confirmed in 2016 within subclade Confirmed within subclade Investigational items|
^ Indicates a next-generation sequencing
entry which does not yet meet quality guidelines for minimum number of
^^ Indicates an entry which does not meet quality guidelines but may be helpful.
~ Indicates only an approximate location on the tree.
The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.
SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.
Contact Peoplefor Haplogroup B: Aaron R. Brown and Bonnie Schrack
• B1 M236, M288
• • B1a M146
• B2 M182, M247/P85, P90
• B2~ V85, V90, V94, V220, V234, V237
• • B2a M150
• • B2a~ Page18, V93
• • • B2a1~ V78
• • • • B2a1a~ V75.1, V197
• • • • • B2a1a1 M218
• • • • • • B2a1a1a~ V62, V227
• • • • • • • B2a1a1a1 M109, M152/Page60, P32, P50
• • • • • • • B2a1a1a1~ V84, V217
• • • • • • • B2a1a1a2 G1
• • • • • • • B2a1a1a3~ V254
• • • • • B2a2a1 M108.1
• • • • • • B2a2a1a M43, P111
• • B2b M112
• • B2b~ Page72
• • • B2b1 M192, 50f2(P)
• • • • B2b1a P7_1, P7_2, P7_3
• • • • • B2b1a1 MSY2.1
• • • • • • B2b1a1a M115, M169
• • • • • • B2b1a1b M30, M129
• • • • • • • B2b1a1b1 M108.2
• • • • • • B2b1a1c M211
• • • • • • B2b1a1c~ Page86
• • • • • B2b1a2 P8_1, P8_2, P8_3, P70
• • • • B2b1b P6
• • • B2b2 P112, V341
• B3 L1387, L1388, L1389, L1390, L1391, L1392, L1393, L1394, L1395, L1396, L1397
Y-DNA haplogroup B, like Y-DNA haplogroup A, is seen only in Africa and is scattered widely, but thinly across the continent. B is thought to have arisen approximately 50,000 years ago. These haplogroups have higher frequencies among hunter-gather groups in Ethiopia and Sudan, and are also seen among click language-speaking populations. The patchy, widespread distribution of these haplogroups may mean that they are remnants of ancient lineages that once had a much wider range but have been largely displaced by more recent population events.
Some geographic structuring is seen between the sub-groups B2a (B-M150) and B2b (B-M112). Sub-group B2b is seen among Central African Pygmies and South African Khoisan. Sub-group B2a is seen among Cameroonians, East Africans, and among South African Bantu speakers. B2a1a (B-M109) is the most commonly seen sub-group of B2a. About 2.3% of African-Americans belong to haplogroup B - with 1.5% of them belonging to the sub-group B2a1a.
Batini et al,
of the Preagricultural Peopling Processes in Sub-Saharan Africa as
Revealed by the Phylogeography of
Early Y Chromosome Lineages. (abstract) Molecular Biology and
Evolution. 28 (9): 2603-2613, 2011.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Gomes et al, Digging Deeper into East African Human Y Chromosone Lineages, Human Genetics, 127(5):603-13, 2010.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Schuster et al, Complete Khoisan and Bantu Genomes from Southern Africa. (abstract) Nature 463, 943-947, 18 February 2010.
Scozzari et al, Molecular Dissection of the Basal Clades in the Human Y Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree, PLoS ONE, Vol. 7, Issue 11, e4917, 2012.
Scozzari et al, An Unbiased Resource of Novel SNP Markers Provides a New Chronology for the Human Y Chromosome and Reveals a Deep Phylogenetic Structure in Africa, Genome Research, Vol. doi:10.1101/gr.160788.113, 2014.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Valone et al, Y SNP Typing of African-American and Caucasian Samples Using Allele-Specific Hybridization and Primer Extension. (pdf) Journal of Forensic Science, 49:4, July 2004.
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
B Haplogroup Project .
The African DNA Project (B), Dr. Ana Oquendo Pabon.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2016:
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