Y-DNA Haplogroup B and its Subclades - 2016

The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the Main Page. Directions for citing the document are given at the bottom of the Main Page.

Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 8 January 2016

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Ray Banks if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk    SNP Index    Papers/Presentations Cited    Glossary   Listing Criteria
FONT COLORS:  Newly confirmed in 2016 within subclade  Confirmed within subclade  Investigational items

^ Indicates a next-generation sequencing entry which does not yet meet quality guidelines for minimum number of reads.
^^ Indicates an entry which does not meet quality guidelines but may be helpful.
~ Indicates only an approximate location on the tree.

The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.

SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.

Contact Peoplefor Haplogroup B: Aaron R. Brown and Bonnie Schrack

Link to Experimental Composite Y-DNA Haplogroup B Tree by Ray Banks.

B   M60, M181/Page32
B~ V244
B1   M236, M288
� � B1a   M146
B2   M182, M247/P85, P90
 B2~ V85, V90, V94, V220, V234, V237
� � B2a   M150
� � B2a~ Page18, V93
� � � B2a1~ V78
� � � � B2a1a~ V75.1, V197
� � � �  B2a1a1   M218
� � � �   B2a1a1a~ V62, V227
� � � �  � � B2a1a1a1   M109, M152/Page60, P32, P50
� � � �  � � B2a1a1a1~ V84, V217
� � � �  � � B2a1a1a2   G1
� � � �  � � B2a1a1a3~ V254
� � � �  B2a2a1   M108.1
� � � �  B2a2a1a   M43, P111
� � B2b   M112
� � B2b~ Page72
� � � B2b1   M192, 50f2(P)
� � � � B2b1a   P7_1, P7_2, P7_3
� � � �  B2b1a1   MSY2.1
� � � �  B2b1a1a   M115, M169
� � � �  B2b1a1b   M30, M129
� � � �  � � B2b1a1b1   M108.2
� � � �  B2b1a1c   M211
� � � �   B2b1a1c~ Page86
� � � �  B2b1a2   P8_1, P8_2, P8_3, P70
� � � � B2b1b   P6
� � � B2b2   P112, V341
B3   L1387, L1388, L1389, L1390, L1391, L1392, L1393, L1394, L1395, L1396, L1397


Y-DNA haplogroup B, like Y-DNA haplogroup A, is seen only in Africa and is scattered widely, but thinly across the continent. B is thought to have arisen approximately 50,000 years ago. These haplogroups have higher frequencies among hunter-gather groups in Ethiopia and Sudan, and are also seen among click language-speaking populations. The patchy, widespread distribution of these haplogroups may mean that they are remnants of ancient lineages that once had a much wider range but have been largely displaced by more recent population events.

Some geographic structuring is seen between the sub-groups B2a (B-M150) and B2b (B-M112). Sub-group B2b is seen among Central African Pygmies and South African Khoisan. Sub-group B2a is seen among Cameroonians, East Africans, and among South African Bantu speakers. B2a1a (B-M109) is the most commonly seen sub-group of B2a. About 2.3% of African-Americans belong to haplogroup B - with 1.5% of them belonging to the sub-group B2a1a.


Batini et al, Signatures of the Preagricultural Peopling Processes in Sub-Saharan Africa as Revealed by the Phylogeography of Early Y Chromosome Lineages. (abstract) Molecular Biology and Evolution. 28 (9): 2603-2613, 2011.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Gomes et al, Digging Deeper into East African Human Y Chromosone Lineages, Human Genetics, 127(5):603-13, 2010.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Schuster et al, Complete Khoisan and Bantu Genomes from Southern Africa. (abstract) Nature 463, 943-947, 18 February 2010.
Scozzari et al, Molecular Dissection of the Basal Clades in the Human Y Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree, PLoS ONE, Vol. 7, Issue 11, e4917, 2012.
Scozzari et al, An Unbiased Resource of Novel SNP Markers Provides a New Chronology for the Human Y Chromosome and Reveals a Deep Phylogenetic Structure in Africa, Genome Research, Vol. doi:10.1101/gr.160788.113, 2014.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Valone et al, Y SNP Typing of African-American and Caucasian Samples Using Allele-Specific Hybridization and Primer Extension. (pdf) Journal of Forensic Science, 49:4, July 2004.

Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
B Haplogroup Project .
The African DNA Project (B), Dr. Ana Oquendo Pabon.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2016:

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