The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the Main Page. Directions for citing the document are given at the bottom of the Main Page.
Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Ray Banks if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.
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|FONT COLORS: Newly confirmed in 2017 within subclade Confirmed within subclade Investigational items|
^ Indicates a next-generation sequencing
entry which does not yet meet quality guidelines for minimum number of
^^ Indicates an entry which does not meet quality guidelines but may be helpful.
~ Indicates only an approximate location on the tree.
The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.
SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.
Contact Person for Haplogroup F: Whit Athey
CTS3654/M3689/PF2667, CTS3996/M3692/PF2671, CTS4443/M3696/PF2677,
F1329/M3658/PF2622/YSC0001299, F1704/M3675/PF2651, F1714/M3677/PF2653,
F1753/M3681/PF2658, F1767/M3683/PF2660, F2048/M3701/PF2683/V3268,
F2075/PF2685, F2142/PF2688, F2155/M3704/PF2690, F2402/M3714/PF2700,
F2587/M3719/PF2709/YSC0001308, F2688/M3722/PF2716, F2837/M3726/PF2722,
F2985/M3736/PF2731, F2993/M3737/PF2732/V3940, F3111/M3740/PF2736,
F3136/M3741/PF2737, F3335/M3754/PF2758, F3692/M3650, L132.1,
L470/M3735/PF2730, L882/M3749/PF2745, M213/P137/Page38/PF2673, M235/Page80/PF2665, M3637/PF2589/V186,
M3638/PF2590/V205, M3639/PF2591, M3647/PF2611, M3652/PF2615,
M3750/PF2747, M3751/PF2748, M3752/PF2749,
P14/PF2704, P134, P135/PF2741, P136/PF2762, P138/PF2655, P139, P140,
P141/PF2602, P145/PF2617, P146/PF2623, P148/PF2734, P149,
P151/PF2625, P157, P158/PF2706, P159/PF2717, P160/PF2618, P161, P163,
P166/PF2702, P187/PF2632, P316/PF2696,
• F1 * P91, P104
• F2 M427, M428
• F3 * M481
• F4~ Z40733, Z40734, Z40735, Z40736, Z40737
• GHIJK F1329/M3658/PF2622/YSC0001299
* The listed F1 & F3 subgroups here are from rare samples that have never been subjected to full Y next-generation sequencing to determine if they might instead share some of the newer mutations discovered downstream of F.
Y-DNA haplogroup F is the parent of all Y-DNA haplogroups G through T and contains more than 90 percent of the world's population. Haplogroup F was in the original migration out of Africa, or else it was founded soon afterward, because F and its sub-haplogroups are primarily found outside, with very few inside, sub-Saharan Africa. The founder of F could have lived between 60,000 and 80,000 years ago, depending on the time of the out-of-Africa migration.
The major sub-groups of Haplogroup F are Haplogroups G, H, [IJ], and K, which are discussed elsewhere at this site. The minor sub-groups have not been well studied, but apparently occur only infrequently and primarily in southern parts of Asia.Geographical distribution so far of haplogroup F subgroups (not complete):
Alonso et al,
Place of the Basques in the European
Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription)
European Journal of
Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Behar et al, Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host Non-Jewish European populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Behar et al, Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People. Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Biro et al, A Y-Chromosomal Comparison of the Madjars (Kazakhstan) and the Magyars (Hungary), American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139(3): 305-10, 2009. (abstract)
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Eaaswarkhanth et al, Traces of Sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern Lineages in Indian Muslim Populations. European Journal of Human Genetics, 18, 354-363, 2010.
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (pdf) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
Fornarino et al, Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome Diversity of the Tharus (Nepal): A Reservoir of Genetic Variation. BMC Evol Biol. 2009; 9: 154. Published online 2009 July 2. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-9-154, 2009.
Francalacci et al, Low-Pass DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. Science: Vol. 341 no. 6145, pp. 565-569, DOI: 10.1126/science.1237947, 2 August 2013.
Hudajashov et al, Revealing the Prehistoric Settlement of Australia by Y chromosome and mtDNA Analysis. PNAS, 104:21, 2007.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Kayser et al. Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Li et al, Paternal Genetic Affinity between Western Austronesians and Daic Populations BMC Evolutionary Biology, Vo. 15(8), p. 146, 2008.
Nasidze et al, MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 69:401-412, 2005.
Nasidze et al, Testing Hypotheses of Language Replacement in the Caucasus: Evidence from the Y-chromosome, Human Genetics 112 (3): 255-61, 2003.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Su et al, Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Underhill et al, New Phylogenetic Relationships for Y-chromosome Haplogroup I: Reappraising its Phylogeography and Prehistory. in Rethinking the Human Evolution, Mellars P, Boyle K, Bar-Yosef O, Stringer C, Eds. McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, UK, pp. 33-42, 2007b.
Underhill et al, Use of Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Population Structure in Tracing Human Migrations. (abstract) Annual Review Genetics, 41:539-564, December 1, 2007(a).
Xue et al, A Spatial Analysis of Genetic Structure of Human Populations in China Reveals Distinct Difference between Maternal and Paternal Lineages. European Journal of Human Genetics, 16:705-17, 2008.
Zhao et al, Presence of Three Different Paternal Lineages among North Indians: A Study of 560 Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Annals of Human Biology, 36(1):46-59, 2009.
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The Haplogroup F Y-DNA Project, Garland Boyette.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2017:
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