The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the Main Page. Directions for citing the document are given at the bottom of the Main Page.
Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Ray Banks if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.
|LINKS: Main Page Y-DNA Tree Trunk SNP Index Papers/Presentations Cited Glossary Listing Criteria|
|FONT COLORS: Newly confirmed in 2018 within subclade Confirmed within subclade Investigational items|
^ Indicates a next-generation sequencing
entry which does not yet meet quality guidelines for minimum number of
^^ Indicates an entry which does not meet quality guidelines but may be helpful.
~ Indicates only an approximate location on the tree.
The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.
SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.
Contact Person for Haplogroup K: Gareth Henson
K~ P128/PF5504, P131/PF5493, PF132/PF5480
• LT or K1 L298/P326, etc.
• • L or K1a M20/PF5570, etc.
• • T or K1b M184/Page34/USP9Y+3178, etc.
• K2 M526/PF5979 -This was previously classified as K(xLT)
• • NO or K2a M214/Page39 etc.
• • • N or K2a1 M231/Page91 etc.
• • • O or K2a2 M175 etc.
• • K2b M1221/P331/PF5911
• • • K2b1 P399, P397^^, PR2099, Z31091, Z31092, Z31109
• • • • S or K2b1a B254, Z33355
• • • • M or K2b1b P256, etc.
• • • P or K2b2 P295/PF5866/S8, etc.
• • K2c P261, P263
• • K2d P402, P403
• • K2e~ M147
Y-DNA haplogroup K is an old lineage established approximately 40,000 thousand years ago whose origins were probably in southwestern Asia. K's structure is interwoven with other haplogroups downstream (refer to the main tree at Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree). The subclades restricted to K itself are found at low frequencies in various parts of Africa, Eurasia, Australia and the South Pacific.
Distribution of ancestry of men in Haplogroup K
K2c P261 Balinese Indonesia
K2d P402 Javanese Indonesia
K2e M147 India, Pakistan
Alonso et al,
Place of the Basques in the European
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Bosch et al, Paternal and Maternal Lineages in the Balkans Show a Homogeneous Landscape over Linguistis Barriers except for the Isolated Aromuns. Annals of Human Genetics, 70:459-87, (2006).
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Cox M P & Lahr M M, Y-Chromosome Diversity Is Inversely Associated with Language Affiliation in Paired Austronesian- and Papuan-Speaking Communities from Solomon Islands. (pdf) American Journal of Human Biology, 18:35-50, 2006.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Delfin et al, The Y Chromosome Landscape of the Philippines: Extensive Heterogeneity and Varying Genetic Affinities of Negrito and Non-Negrito Groups. (abstract) European Journal of Human Genetics, 19:224-30, 2011.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Eaaswarkhanth et al, Traces of Sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern Lineages in Indian Muslim Populations. European Journal of Human Genetics, 18, 354-363, 2010.
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (pdf) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
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Karafet et al, Improved Phylogenetic Resolution and Rapid Diversification of Y-chromosome Haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia. European Journal of Human Genetics, 1-5, 2014.
Karmin et al, A Recent Bottleneck of Y chromosome Diversity Coincides with a Global Change in Culture. Genome Research, doi: 10.1101/gr.186684.114, published online March 13, 2015.
Kayser et al, The Impact of the Austronesian Expansion: Evidence from mtDNa and Y Chromosome Diversity in the Admiralty Islands of Melanesia. Molecular Biology Evolution, 25(7):1362-1374, 2008.
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Kayser et al, Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y-Chromosome Gradients across the Pacific. MBE Advance Access published August 21, 2006.
Kayser et al. Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
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Li et al, Paternal Genetic Affinity between Western Austronesians and Daic Populations BMC Evolutionary Biology, Vo. 15(8), p. 146, 2008.
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Scheinfeldt et al, Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.
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Thangaraj et al, Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population. (pdf) Current Biology, 13:86-93, 2003.
Xue et al, A Spatial Analysis of Genetic Structure of Human Populations in China Reveals Distinct Difference between Maternal and Paternal Lineages. European Journal of Human Genetics, 16:705-17, 2008.
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