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Y-DNA Haplogroup M and its Subclades - 2018

The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the Main Page.   Directions for citing the document are given at the bottom of the Main Page.

Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 1 January 2018

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Ray Banks if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
FONT COLORS:  Newly confirmed in 2018 within subclade  Confirmed within subclade  Investigational items  

^ Indicates a next-generation sequencing entry which does not yet meet quality guidelines for minimum number of reads.
^^ Indicates an entry which does not meet quality guidelines but may be helpful.
~ Indicates only an approximate location on the tree.

The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.

SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.

Contact Person for Haplogroup M: Tim Janzen

M   P256, Page93/S322
 M1   M4, M5/P73, M106, M186, M189, M296
 M1~ CTS7357.2, FGC29215, M5991, Page1, Page93/S322, PH4279, PH3025, SK1828, SK1845, SK1846, SK1847, SK1848, SK1849, SK1850, SK1851, SK1852, SK1853, SK1854, SK1855, SK1856, SK1857, Y1422.2/Z8214.2, YSC0000696, Z376.2, FGC13408.2,/Z1639.2, Z31028.2, Z30832, Z30839, Z30840, Z30841, Z30890, Z30891, Z30892, Z30893, Z30894, Z30895, Z30896, Z30897, Z30898, Z30899, Z30900, Z30901, Z30902, Z30903, Z30904, Z30905,  Z30908, Z30909, Z30910, Z30911, Z30912, Z30913, Z30914, Z30915, Z30916, Z30918, Z30919, Z30921, Z30922, Z30923, Z30924, Z30925, Z30926, Z30929, Z30930, Z30931, Z30932, Z30933, Z30934, Z30935, Z30936, Z30939, Z30940, Z30942, Z30943, Z30944, Z30945, Z30948, Z30949, Z30950, Z30951, Z30952, Z30953, Z30054, Z30955, Z30956, Z30957, Z30958, Z30959, Z30960, Z30961, Z30962, Z30963, Z30964, Z30965, Z30966, Z30967, Z30968, Z30972, Z30975, Z30976, Z30977, Z30978, Z30979, Z30980, Z30981, Z30982, Z30983, Z30984, Z30985, Z30986, Z30987, Z30988, Z30989, Z30991, Z30992, Z30993, Z30994, Z30995, Z30996, Z30997, Z30998, Z30999, Z31001, Z31002, Z31004, Z31006, Z31008, Z31009, Z31010, Z31011, Z31012, Z31013, Z31014, Z31015, Z31016, Z31017, Z31018, Z31019, Z31020, Z31021, Z31022, Z31023, Z31024, Z31025, Z31026, Z31028, Z31029, Z31030, Z31031, Z31032, Z31033, Z31034, Z31035, Z31036, Z31037, Z31038, Z31039, Z31040, Z31041, Z31042, Z31043, Z31044, Z31045, Z31048, Z31049, Z31050, Z31051, Z31052, Z31054, Z31055, Z31056, Z31057, Z31058, Z31059, Z31061, Z31063, Z31064, Z31065, Z31066, Z31067, Z31068, Z31069, Z31070, Z31071, Z31072, Z31073, Z31074, Z31075, Z31076, Z31077, Z31078, Z31080, Z31081, Z31082, Z31083, Z31085, Z31086, Z31087, Z31088, Z31089, Z31090, Z31093, Z31094, Z31095, Z31096, Z31097, Z31099, Z31100, Z31101, Z31102, Z31103, Z31104, Z31105, Z31106, Z31107, Z31108, Z31110, Z31111, Z31112, Z31113, Z31114, Z31115, Z31116, Z31117, Z31133, Z31134, Z31136, Z31137, Z31138, Z31140, Z31141, Z31143. Z31144. Z31145, Z31147, Z31148, Z31149, Z31150,  Z31152, Z31153, Z31154, Z31155, Z31156, Z31157, Z31159, Z31160, Z31161, Z31162, Z31163, Z31164, Z31165, Z31166, Z31167, Z31168, Z31169, Z31170, Z31171, Z31172, Z31173, Z31174, Z31175, Z31181, Z31182, Z31183, Z31184, Z31185, Z31187, Z31188, Z31189, Z31190. Z31191, Z31192. Z31193, Z31194, Z31195, Z31196, Z31197, Z31198, Z33312, Z33344, Z43395, Z43396, Z43397, Z43398, Z43399, Z43400, Z34401, Z34402, Z34403, Z34404, Z34405, Z34406, Z43407, Z43408, Z43409, Z43410
  M1a BY8413.1/Z30938.1, SK1869, Z30835, Z30907, Z30917, Z30920, Z30928, Z30937, Z31000, Z31005, Z31007, Z31046, Z31060, Z31062, Z31079, Z31151, Z31158
   M1a1~  P94
   M1a2  Z30928, Z31007, Z31146
    M1a2a  P87
      M1a2a1 M104_1/P22_1^^, M104_2/P22_2^^
     M1a2a1~ F2561/Page67
     M1a2a1~ FGC24709, FGC36703, SK1877, SK1879, Z42236, Z42237, Z42238, Z42239, Z42240, Z42241, Z42242, Z42243, Z42244, Z42245, Z42246, Z42247, Z42248, Z42249, Z42250, Z42251, Z42252, Z42253, Z42254, Z42255, Z42256, Z42257, Z42258, Z42259, Z42260, Z42261, Z42262, Z42263, Z42264, Z42265, Z42266, Z42267, Z42268, Z42269, Z42270, Z42271, Z42272, Z42273, Z42274, Z42275, Z42276, Z42277,  Z42278, Z42279, Z42280
      M1a2a1a   M16
      M1a2a1b   M83
      M1a2a1b~ SK1881, Z42285, Z42286, Z42287
      M1a2a1c~ SK1880, Z42281, Z42282, Z42283, Z42284
   M1a3~ Z33330, Z33345, Z42288
    M1a3a~ P51, SK1872, Z42289, Z42290, Z42291, Z42292
   M1a3b  B256, SK1882, Z31135, Z33309, Z33313, Z33318, Z33319, Z33323, Z33325, Z33331, Z33336, Z33343, Z33347, Z33348, Z33350
    M1a3b~  Z33310, Z33311, Z33317, Z33320, Z33321, Z33324, Z33326, Z33327, Z33332, Z33337, Z33341, Z33351
     M1a3b1  Z33322, Z33328
     M1a3b1~ Z33114. Z33315, Z33316, Z33317, Z33329, Z33333, Z33339, Z33340, Z33342
      M1a3b1a~ SK1889, Z42293, Z42294, Z42295, Z42296
     M1a3b1b  Z42297. Z42298, Z42299. Z42300, Z42301, Z42302, Z42303, Z42304, Z42305, Z42306, Z42307, Z42308, Z42309, Z42310, Z42311, Z42312, Z42313, Z42314, Z42315, Z42316, Z42317. Z42318, Z42319, Z42320, Z42321, Z42322
       M1a3b1b1~ Z42323, Z42324, Z42325, Z42326, Z42327
       M1a3b1b2~ BY3630.2, F1295.2, Z42328, Z42329, Z42330
      M1a3b1c  B269. Z31204, Z33269, Z33270, Z33271, Z33272, Z33273, Z33274, Z33276, Z33277, Z33278, Z33279, Z33280, Z33281, Z33282, Z33283, Z33284, Z33285, Z33286, Z33288, Z33289, Z33290, Z33291, Z33292, Z33293, Z33295, Z33296, Z33297, Z33298, Z33299, Z33300 
       M1a3b1c1~ B271, Z33302, Z33305, Z33307, Z33308
       M1a3b1c2~ B270, Z38339, Z38340, Z38341
      M1a3b1d~ B272, Z33740. Z33741, Z33742, Z33743
     M1a3b2 Z43837, Z43838
     M1a3b2~ M10781/S20812/ZS4770
      M1a3b2a~ Z42538, Z42539, Z42540, Z42541, Z42542
      M1a3b2b~ Z43832. Z43833, Z43834, Z43835, Z43836
  M1b~ Z43411, Z43412, Z43413, Z43414, Z43415
 M2  M353, M387
 M2~ F1992.2, PF4350
  M2a   M177/SRY9138^^
 M3  P117, P118


Y-DNA haplogroup M reaches its known peak in Papua New Guinea, totaling one-third to two-thirds of population.  The haplogroup M Aborigines in Australia seem comparatively to be the most recent arrivals among Aborigines (Bergstrom).  

Geographic distribution so far of ancestry of modern-day haplogroup M subgroup men (not complete):

       M16         Papua New Guinea
       M83         Papua New Guinea
       B271        Papua New Guinea
       B269        Papua New Guinea
       Z42297    N. Australia (Aborigines)
      M177        Papua New Guinea
      P117         Melanesia


Bergstrom et al, Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes. (pdf) Current Biology, 26:809-813, (2016). 
Bergstrom et al,  A Neolithic Expansion, but Strong Genetic Structure, in the Independent History of New Guinea Science, 357:1160-1163 (2017).
Cox M P & Lahr M M, Y-Chromosome Diversity Is Inversely Associated with Language Affiliation in Paired Austronesian- and Papuan-Speaking Communities from Solomon Islands. (pdf) American Journal of Human Biology, 18:35-50, 2006.
et al, European Y-Chromosomal Lineages in Polynesians: A Contrast to the Population Structure Revealed by mtDNA. American Journal of Human Genetics, 63:1793-1806, 1998.
et al, Y Chromosomal Evidence for the Origins of Oceanic-Speaking Peoples. Genetics, 160:289-303, January 2002.
et al, A Recent Bottleneck of Y chromosome Diversity Coincides with a Global Change in Culture. Genome Research, doi: 10.1101/gr.186684.114, published online March 13, 2015.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
et al, The Impact of the Austronesian Expansion: Evidence from mtDNa and Y Chromosome Diversity in the Admiralty Islands of Melanesia. Molecular Biology Evolution, 25(7):1362-1374, 2008.
et al, Independent Histories of Human Y Chromosomes from Melanesia and Australia. American Journal of Human Genetics, 68:173-190, 2001.
et al, Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y-Chromosome Gradients across the Pacific. MBE Advance Access published August 21, 2006.
et al, Melanesian Origin of Polynesian Y Chromosomes. Current Biology, Vol. 10, No. 20, September 2000.
et al. Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
et al, Patterns of Y-chromosome Diversity Intersect with the Trans-New Guinea Hypothesis. Mol Biol Evol. 2007 Sep 10; [Epub ahead of print]
et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
et al, Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.

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