Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Ray Banks if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.
|FONT COLORS: Newly confirmed in 2018 within subclade Confirmed within subclade Investigational items|
^ Indicates a next-generation sequencing
entry which does not yet meet quality guidelines for minimum number of
^^ Indicates an entry which does not meet quality guidelines but may be helpful.
~ Indicates only an approximate location on the tree.
The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.
SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.
Contact Person for Haplogroup M: Tim Janzen
• M1 M4, M5/P73, M106, M186, M189, M296
• M1~ CTS7357.2, FGC29215, M5991, Page1, Page93/S322, PH4279, PH3025, SK1828, SK1845, SK1846, SK1847, SK1848, SK1849, SK1850, SK1851, SK1852, SK1853, SK1854, SK1855, SK1856, SK1857, Y1422.2/Z8214.2, YSC0000696, Z376.2, FGC13408.2,/Z1639.2, Z31028.2, Z30832, Z30839, Z30840, Z30841, Z30890, Z30891, Z30892, Z30893, Z30894, Z30895, Z30896, Z30897, Z30898, Z30899, Z30900, Z30901, Z30902, Z30903, Z30904, Z30905, Z30908, Z30909, Z30910, Z30911, Z30912, Z30913, Z30914, Z30915, Z30916, Z30918, Z30919, Z30921, Z30922, Z30923, Z30924, Z30925, Z30926, Z30929, Z30930, Z30931, Z30932, Z30933, Z30934, Z30935, Z30936, Z30939, Z30940, Z30942, Z30943, Z30944, Z30945, Z30948, Z30949, Z30950, Z30951, Z30952, Z30953, Z30054, Z30955, Z30956, Z30957, Z30958, Z30959, Z30960, Z30961, Z30962, Z30963, Z30964, Z30965, Z30966, Z30967, Z30968, Z30972, Z30975, Z30976, Z30977, Z30978, Z30979, Z30980, Z30981, Z30982, Z30983, Z30984, Z30985, Z30986, Z30987, Z30988, Z30989, Z30991, Z30992, Z30993, Z30994, Z30995, Z30996, Z30997, Z30998, Z30999, Z31001, Z31002, Z31004, Z31006, Z31008, Z31009, Z31010, Z31011, Z31012, Z31013, Z31014, Z31015, Z31016, Z31017, Z31018, Z31019, Z31020, Z31021, Z31022, Z31023, Z31024, Z31025, Z31026, Z31028, Z31029, Z31030, Z31031, Z31032, Z31033, Z31034, Z31035, Z31036, Z31037, Z31038, Z31039, Z31040, Z31041, Z31042, Z31043, Z31044, Z31045, Z31048, Z31049, Z31050, Z31051, Z31052, Z31054, Z31055, Z31056, Z31057, Z31058, Z31059, Z31061, Z31063, Z31064, Z31065, Z31066, Z31067, Z31068, Z31069, Z31070, Z31071, Z31072, Z31073, Z31074, Z31075, Z31076, Z31077, Z31078, Z31080, Z31081, Z31082, Z31083, Z31085, Z31086, Z31087, Z31088, Z31089, Z31090, Z31093, Z31094, Z31095, Z31096, Z31097, Z31099, Z31100, Z31101, Z31102, Z31103, Z31104, Z31105, Z31106, Z31107, Z31108, Z31110, Z31111, Z31112, Z31113, Z31114, Z31115, Z31116, Z31117, Z31133, Z31134, Z31136, Z31137, Z31138, Z31140, Z31141, Z31143. Z31144. Z31145, Z31147, Z31148, Z31149, Z31150, Z31152, Z31153, Z31154, Z31155, Z31156, Z31157, Z31159, Z31160, Z31161, Z31162, Z31163, Z31164, Z31165, Z31166, Z31167, Z31168, Z31169, Z31170, Z31171, Z31172, Z31173, Z31174, Z31175, Z31181, Z31182, Z31183, Z31184, Z31185, Z31187, Z31188, Z31189, Z31190. Z31191, Z31192. Z31193, Z31194, Z31195, Z31196, Z31197, Z31198, Z33312, Z33344, Z43395, Z43396, Z43397, Z43398, Z43399, Z43400, Z34401, Z34402, Z34403, Z34404, Z34405, Z34406, Z43407, Z43408, Z43409, Z43410
• • M1a BY8413.1/Z30938.1, SK1869, Z30835, Z30907, Z30917, Z30920, Z30928, Z30937, Z31000, Z31005, Z31007, Z31046, Z31060, Z31062, Z31079, Z31151, Z31158
• • • M1a1~ P94
• • • M1a2 Z30928, Z31007, Z31146
• • • • M1a2a P87
• • • • • M1a2a1 M104_1/P22_1^^, M104_2/P22_2^^
• • • • • M1a2a1~ F2561/Page67
• • • • • M1a2a1~ FGC24709, FGC36703, SK1877, SK1879, Z42236, Z42237, Z42238, Z42239, Z42240, Z42241, Z42242, Z42243, Z42244, Z42245, Z42246, Z42247, Z42248, Z42249, Z42250, Z42251, Z42252, Z42253, Z42254, Z42255, Z42256, Z42257, Z42258, Z42259, Z42260, Z42261, Z42262, Z42263, Z42264, Z42265, Z42266, Z42267, Z42268, Z42269, Z42270, Z42271, Z42272, Z42273, Z42274, Z42275, Z42276, Z42277, Z42278, Z42279, Z42280
• • • • • • M1a2a1a M16
• • • • • • M1a2a1b M83
• • • • • • M1a2a1b~ SK1881, Z42285, Z42286, Z42287
• • • • • • M1a2a1c~ SK1880, Z42281, Z42282, Z42283, Z42284
• • • M1a3~ Z33330, Z33345, Z42288
• • • • M1a3a~ P51, SK1872, Z42289, Z42290, Z42291, Z42292
• • • • M1a3b B256, SK1882, Z31135, Z33309, Z33313, Z33318, Z33319, Z33323, Z33325, Z33331, Z33336, Z33343, Z33347, Z33348, Z33350
• • • • M1a3b~ Z33310, Z33311, Z33317, Z33320, Z33321, Z33324, Z33326, Z33327, Z33332, Z33337, Z33341, Z33351
• • • • • M1a3b1 Z33322, Z33328
• • • • • M1a3b1~ Z33114. Z33315, Z33316, Z33317, Z33329, Z33333, Z33339, Z33340, Z33342
• • • • • • M1a3b1a~ SK1889, Z42293, Z42294, Z42295, Z42296
• • • • • • M1a3b1b Z42297. Z42298, Z42299. Z42300, Z42301, Z42302, Z42303, Z42304, Z42305, Z42306, Z42307, Z42308, Z42309, Z42310, Z42311, Z42312, Z42313, Z42314, Z42315, Z42316, Z42317. Z42318, Z42319, Z42320, Z42321, Z42322
• • • • • • • M1a3b1b1~ Z42323, Z42324, Z42325, Z42326, Z42327
• • • • • • • M1a3b1b2~ BY3630.2, F1295.2, Z42328, Z42329, Z42330
• • • • • • M1a3b1c B269. Z31204, Z33269, Z33270, Z33271, Z33272, Z33273, Z33274, Z33276, Z33277, Z33278, Z33279, Z33280, Z33281, Z33282, Z33283, Z33284, Z33285, Z33286, Z33288, Z33289, Z33290, Z33291, Z33292, Z33293, Z33295, Z33296, Z33297, Z33298, Z33299, Z33300
• • • • • • • M1a3b1c1~ B271, Z33302, Z33305, Z33307, Z33308
• • • • • • • M1a3b1c2~ B270, Z38339, Z38340, Z38341
• • • • • • M1a3b1d~ B272, Z33740. Z33741, Z33742, Z33743
• • • • • M1a3b2 Z43837, Z43838
• • • • • M1a3b2~ M10781/S20812/ZS4770
• • • • • • M1a3b2a~ Z42538, Z42539, Z42540, Z42541, Z42542
• • • • • • M1a3b2b~ Z43832. Z43833, Z43834, Z43835, Z43836
• • M1b~ Z43411, Z43412, Z43413, Z43414, Z43415
• M2 M353, M387
• M2~ F1992.2, PF4350
• • M2a M177/SRY9138^^
• M3 P117, P118
Y-DNA haplogroup M reaches its known peak in Papua New Guinea, totaling one-third to two-thirds of population. The haplogroup M Aborigines in Australia seem comparatively to be the most recent arrivals among Aborigines (Bergstrom).
Geographic distribution so far of ancestry of modern-day haplogroup M subgroup men (not complete):M1b
Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes. (pdf)
Current Biology, 26:809-813, (2016).
Bergstrom et al, A Neolithic Expansion, but Strong Genetic Structure, in the Independent History of New Guinea Science, 357:1160-1163 (2017).
Cox M P & Lahr M M, Y-Chromosome Diversity Is Inversely Associated with Language Affiliation in Paired Austronesian- and Papuan-Speaking Communities from Solomon Islands. (pdf) American Journal of Human Biology, 18:35-50, 2006.
Hurles et al, European Y-Chromosomal Lineages in Polynesians: A Contrast to the Population Structure Revealed by mtDNA. American Journal of Human Genetics, 63:1793-1806, 1998.
Hurles et al, Y Chromosomal Evidence for the Origins of Oceanic-Speaking Peoples. Genetics, 160:289-303, January 2002.
Karmin et al, A Recent Bottleneck of Y chromosome Diversity Coincides with a Global Change in Culture. Genome Research, doi: 10.1101/gr.186684.114, published online March 13, 2015.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Kayser et al, The Impact of the Austronesian Expansion: Evidence from mtDNa and Y Chromosome Diversity in the Admiralty Islands of Melanesia. Molecular Biology Evolution, 25(7):1362-1374, 2008.
Kayser et al, Independent Histories of Human Y Chromosomes from Melanesia and Australia. American Journal of Human Genetics, 68:173-190, 2001.
Kayser et al, Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y-Chromosome Gradients across the Pacific. MBE Advance Access published August 21, 2006.
Kayser et al, Melanesian Origin of Polynesian Y Chromosomes. Current Biology, Vol. 10, No. 20, September 2000.
Kayser et al. Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
Mona et al, Patterns of Y-chromosome Diversity Intersect with the Trans-New Guinea Hypothesis. Mol Biol Evol. 2007 Sep 10; [Epub ahead of print]
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Scheinfeldt et al, Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.
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