From ISOGG Wiki
A centromere is a constricted region of a chromosome that separates it into a short arm (p) and a long arm (q). During cell division, the chromosomes first replicate so that each daughter cell receives a complete set of chromosomes. Following DNA replication, the chromosome consists of two identical structures called sister chromatids, which are joined at the centromere.
Centromere locations (Build 37)
The information in this table was extracted by Kitty Cooper from: http://genome.ucsc.edu/cgi-bin/hgTables Instructions were taken from: http://www.biostars.org/p/2349/. Note that the positions in Kitty's chart differ from those provided by Family Tree DNA which we are informed currently uses Build 36. See the FTDNA FAQ Where are the centromeres located on each autosomal DNA chromosome.
Reporting segments crossing the centromere
Family Tree DNA does not count the centiMorgans in the centromere. They allow for a block to continue across the centromere so that if the block on the left is A, the centromere is B, and the block on the right is C, then the matching segment is reported as A+C.
- The Y-chromosome's uncharted regions by Sarah Zhang, The Atlantic, 21 March 2018. How nanopore sequencing is making it possible to sequence the repetitive regions in the centromere of the human Y-chromosome.
- GRCh38: Incorporating Modeled Centromere Sequence GenomeRef blog, 14 January 2014.
- Miga1 KH, Newton Y, Jain M et al. Centromere reference models for human chromosomes X and Y satellite arrays. Genome Research 2014. Published online 5 February.
- Canada R. Message posted in the Family Tree DNA Forums, 27 March 2014. As of 3 June 2016 the out-of-date FAQ. How does the Family Finder program account for the centromere? in the FTDNA Learning Center has not been updated.
This article uses material in the public domain from the Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms and is reproduced courtesy of the National Human Genome Research Institute.