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Gene by Gene

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Gene by Gene, Ltd.
Type Ltd
Industry Biotechnology, genealogy, DTC genetic testing
Founded April 2000
Founder(s) Bennett Greenspan
Headquarters Houston, Texas, USA
Area served International
Products Ancestry testing, paternity and relationship testing, research and health

Gene by Gene is a commercial genetic testing company based in Houston, Texas.[1] The company is owned by Bennett Greenspan and Max Blankfeld. It is best known as the parent company of Family Tree DNA.


Genealogy by Genetics, Ltd. was formed in 2000 with the creation of Family Tree DNA. In September 2012, Greenspan and Blankfeld restructured it. This included their renaming the company as Gene by Gene, Ltd.[2][3] After restructuring, the business comprises four divisions. These are DNA DTC, DNA Findings, DNA Traits, and Family Tree DNA.[4][3]

Family Tree DNA

Family Tree DNA was the first commercial company to develop DNA testing for genealogical DNA testing purposes.[5] It has been operational since April 2000.

The Genomics Research Center

Family Tree DNA originally partnered with the University of Arizona for testing.[6][7] However, Greenspan and Blankfeld started their own testing laboratory in Houston, Texas under the Genealogy by Genetics, Ltd. parent company in 2007.[8] This is the Genomics Research Center (GRC).[9][2] As at November 2012, the GRC had processed more than 5 million discrete DNA tests for more than 700,000 individuals and organizations.[10][11][12] Prior to November 2016, all public participation kits from the Genographic Project were processed at the GRC laboratory.[13][14] In April 2013, Gene by Gene announced it had signed an agreement with the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center to provide instruction, training and supervision to the center's undergraduate molecular genetic technology students.[15][16]

Additional divisions

With the opening of the GRC, Greenspan and Blankfeld, between 2008 and 2012, formed additional business units under the Genealogy by Genetics company to sell non-genealogical genetic tests.[17][18]Greenspan and Blankfeld launched DNA Traits in 2008. In an interview in 2008, Greenspan said "Mendelian disorders are genealogy – we either have had a disaster in our families and therefore we know that someone carries the mutation, or they are hidden and depending upon whom we marry they might create a personal disaster for the family who is a carrier."[17][18] DNA Traits offers CLIA-regulated health diagnostic tests to identify genetic disorders and susceptibility to inherited diseases and other characteristics. DNA Traits serves certified medical professionals and researchers.[19] DNA Findings certified relationship tests including paternity tests and siblingship tests. DNA DTC was created to serve both the Direct-To-Consumer (DTC) market and institutional clients such as life science companies, contract research organizations, academic institutions and public-sector research facilities.[12][20][3]


  1. "GENEBYGENE". Retrieved November 28, 2012. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Moore, Charles (April 24, 2013). "Houston-Based Gene By Gene To Provide Student Clinical Phase Instruction, Training, And Supervision At MD Anderson Cancer Center". BioNews Texas. Retrieved June 18, 2013. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Estes, Roberta (November 30, 2012). "Gene by Gene Announces Landmark DNA DTC Full Genome Sequence". Retrieved December 6, 2012. 
  4. "Supreme Court Ruling Today Allows DNATraits to Offer Low Cost BRCA Breast and Ovarian Cancer Gene Testing in U.S.". Wall Street Journal (Wall Street Journal). Retrieved June 19, 2013. 
  5. Family Tree DNA. "Family Tree DNA reaches a historic milestone: over 500,000 DNA tests". Press release. Retrieved November 29, 2012. 
  6. Lomax, John Nova (April 14, 2005). "Who's Your Daddy?". Houston Press (Houston Press, LP). Retrieved June 14, 2013. 
  7. "Interview with Bennett Greenspan". Journal of Genetic Genealogy 5 (2): v-vii. 2009. Retrieved June 18, 2013. 
  8. Bradford, Nicole (24 Feb 2008). "Riding the 'genetic revolution'". Houston Business Journal (American City Business Journals). Retrieved 19 June 2013. 
  9. Moore, CeCe (February 9, 2013). "A Visit to Family Tree DNA's State-of-the-Art Lab". Your Genetic Genealogist. Retrieved June 18, 2013. 
  10. Estes, Roberta (November 13, 2012). "Family Tree DNA Conference 2012 – Nits and Grits". Retrieved November 28, 2012. 
  11. Zinck, Jennifer (November 13, 2012). "8th Annual Conference on Genetic Genealogy – Day 1". Retrieved November 28, 2012. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Gene By Gene Launches DNA DTC". The Wall Street Journal. November 29, 2012. Retrieved November 29, 2012. 
  13. "FAQ – Testing, Results, Participation". The Genographic Project. Retrieved April 27, 2013. "Once you return your genetic sample, it will be processed at Family Tree DNA, the Genographic Project’s testing partner and a leading genetic genealogy company." 
  14. "FAQ – About the Project". The Genographic Project. Retrieved April 27, 2013. "Family Tree DNA (FTDNA), a leading genetic testing company, partners with National Geographic on public participation testing for the project. Family Tree DNA also works with the Genographic Project to help address individual questions from public participants regarding participation and results." 
  15. "Gene By Gene Signs Agreement with MD Anderson Cancer Center". Press release. April 23, 2013. Retrieved April 24, 2013. 
  16. Raji, Bayan (May 9, 2013). "Houston company to train first crop of genetic students". Houston Business Journal. Retrieved May 10, 2013. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 Bettinger, Blaine (May 28, 2008). "Interview Series I – Bennett Greenspan of Family Tree DNA". The Genetic Genealogist. Retrieved 24 June 2013. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 Bettinger, Blaine (February 20, 2008). "Family Tree DNA Launches DNATraits, A New DNA Testing Company". The Genetic Genealogist. Retrieved 24 June 2013. 
  19. Raji, Bayan (25 June 2013). "Behind the scenes: What's new at Houston genetic testing company Gene By Gene (Video)". Houston Bizblog. Retrieved 25 June 2013. 
  20. Vorhaus, Dan (November 29, 2012). "DNA DTC: The Return of Direct to Consumer Whole Genome Sequencing". Retrieved November 30, 2012. 

External links

GNU head This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Gene by Gene".