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|CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS: Added Redefined|
|SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2013 tree Confirmed within subclade Provisional Private Investigation|
B M60, M181/Page32,
B1 M236, M288
B2a M150, Page18
B2a1a M109, M152/Page60, P32, P50
B2a2a M43, P111
B2b1 M192, 50f2(P)
B2b1a P7_1, P7_2, P7_3
B2b1a1a M115, M169
B2b1a1b M30, M129
B2b1a2 P8_1, P8_2, P8_3, P70
B2b2 P112, V341
SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.
Y-DNA haplogroup B, like Y-DNA haplogroup A, is seen only in Africa and is scattered widely, but thinly across the continent. B is thought to have arisen approximately 50,000 years ago. These haplogroups have higher frequencies among hunter-gather groups in Ethiopia and Sudan, and are also seen among click language-speaking populations. The patchy, widespread distribution of these haplogroups may mean that they are remnants of ancient lineages that once had a much wider range but have been largely displaced by more recent population events.
Some geographic structuring is seen between the sub-groups B2a (B-M150) and B2b (B-M112). Sub-group B2b is seen among Central African Pygmies and South African Khoisan. Sub-group B2a is seen among Cameroonians, East Africans, and among South African Bantu speakers. B2a1a (B-M109) is the most commonly seen sub-group of B2a. About 2.3% of African-Americans belong to haplogroup B - with 1.5% of them belonging to the sub-group B2a1a.
Batini et al,
Signatures of the Preagricultural Peopling Processes in Sub-Saharan Africa as Revealed by the Phylogeography of
Early Y Chromosome Lineages. (abstract) Molecular Biology and Evolution. 28 (9): 2603-2613, 2011.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Gomes et al, Digging Deeper into East African Human Y Chromosone Lineages, Human Genetics, 127(5):603-13, 2010.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Schuster et al, Complete Khoisan and Bantu Genomes from Southern Africa. (abstract) Nature 463, 943-947, 18 February 2010.
Scozzari et al, Molecular Dissection of the Basal Clades in the Human Y Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree, PLoS ONE, Vol. 7, Issue 11, e4917, 2012.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Valone et al, Y SNP Typing of African-American and Caucasian Samples Using Allele-Specific Hybridization and Primer Extension. (pdf) Journal of Forensic Science, 49:4, July 2004.
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
B Haplogroup Project .
The African DNA Project (B), Dr. Ana Oquendo Pabon.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2014:
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