Y-DNA Haplogroup I and its
Subclades - 2017
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^ Indicates a next-generation sequencing
entry which does not yet meet quality guidelines for minimum number of
^^ Indicates an entry which does not meet quality guidelines but may be
~ Indicates only an approximate location on the tree.
criteria for a representative SNP printed
bold for a subclade is: traditional usage,
in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used
in recent research studies.
listed below in
(colored black or red)
are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports
consistently showing as representing that subgroup.
Contact People for Haplogroup I:
Overall I Contact: Phil
I1 and Subclades Contact: Steve
I2a1 P37.2 and Subclades Contact: Zdenko Markovic
I2a2 P217 and Subclades Contact: Aaron Salles Torres
I2b L415 and I2c L596 Subclades Contact: Bob May I M170/PF3715,
CTS48/PF3569, CTS70/PF3570, CTS88/PF3571, CTS646/PF3629,
CTS674/FI1/PF3630, CTS772/PF3631, CTS1006, CTS1301/PF3635,
CTS1555/PF3696, CTS1800/PF3699, CTS2193/PF3703, CTS2387/PF3705,
CTS2514/PF3706, CTS2536/PF3707, CTS3076/PF3712, CTS3383/PF3716,
L41/PF3787, L503, L578/PF3653, L751/PF3779/YSC0000291,
L755/PF3659/YSC0000283, L758/PF3663/YSC0000285, L772/PF3731/YSC0000263,
L847/PF3841/YSC0000298, L1197/PF3718/YSC0000260, M258/PF3721, V2740, CTS3641/PF3722,
CTS4077/PF3725, CTS4088/PF3868, CTS4209/PF3726, CTS4239/PF3727,
CTS4272/PF3728, CTS4273/PF3729, CTS4340/PF3730, CTS4637, CTS4664,
CTS4745/PF3734, CTS4752/PF3735, CTS4848/FI7/PF3736, CTS4982/PF3737,
CTS5016/PF3738, CTS5150/PF3739, CTS5263, CTS5622/PF3743,
CTS5650/PF3744, CTS5764/PF3746, CTS5908/PF3747, CTS5946/PF3748,
CTS6231/PF3750, CTS6265/PF3871, CTS6271/PF3751, CTS6334/PF3752,
CTS6343/PF3753, CTS6344/PF3754, CTS6497/PF3756, CTS6751/PF3757,
CTS7026/PF3758, CTS7329, CTS7469, CTS7502/PF3760, CTS7540/PF3761,
CTS7593/PF3763, CTS7831/PF3766, CTS8064/PF3768, CTS8257,
CTS8300/PF3770, CTS8333/PF3771, CTS8345/PF3772, CTS8420/PF3773,
CTS8545/PF3775, CTS8742/PF3776, CTS8876/PF3778, CTS8963,
CTS9264/PF3782, CTS9269/PF3783, CTS9484/PF3785, CTS9618/PF3786,
CTS9838/PF3788, CTS9860/PF3790, CTS10058, CTS10941/PF3838,
CTS11369/PF3840, CTS11441, CTS11540/PF3842, CTS11779/PF3844,
CTS11979/PF3878, FI2/YSC0000281, FI3/L756/PF3662/YSC0000284,
FI4/PF3668, FGC2411/Y1877, FGC2412/Y1909, FGC2413/Y1869, FGC2414/Y1903,
FGC2415/Y1880, FGC2416/S10441/Y1865, FGC2417, FGC2418/Y1841, FGC2419,
FGC2420/Y1907, FGC2421/Y1931, FGC2424, FGC2443/Y1834, FGC2447, FGC2453,
FGC2456, FGC2458/Y1942, FGC2467, FGC3436, FGC7049, FGC7050
M11064/PF3634, P19_1, P19_2, P19_3, P19_4, P19_5, P38,
P212/PF3580, PF3742/U179, PF3574, PF3575, PF3578, PF3585,
PF3586, PF3588, PF3589, PF3590, PF3592, PF3594, PF3596, PF3599, PF3600,
PF3601, PF3602, PF3603, PF3604, PF3605, PF3611, PF3612, PF3616, PF3617,
PF3618, PF3620, PF3622, PF3625, PF3627.2/V218.2, PF3639, PF3640,
PF3641, PF3642, PF3645, PF3649, PF3654, PF3660, PF3661, PF3665, PF3666,
PF3670, PF3672, PF3675, PF3677, PF3685, PF3687, PF3689, PF3694, PF3695,
PF3742/U179, PF3759/YSC0000267, PF3780, PF3794, PF3795, PF3796, PF3797,
PF3799, PF3800, PF3803, PF3804, PF3806, PF3807, PF3809, PF3811, PF3813,
PF3814, PF3815, PF3817, PF3819, PF3822, PF3828, PF3829, PF3833, PF3836,
PF3837, PF3847/YSC0000300, PF3864, Y1847,
YSC0000256.1, YSC0000272, Z16984, Z16985, Z16986 /,
CTS22/Z2677, CTS40/Z2678, CTS136/Z2679, CTS209^/V1092^/Z2680^,
CTS565/Z2700, CTS571/Z2701, CTS641/Z2702, CTS733/Z2703, CTS765^/Z2704^,
CTS883/Z2705, CTS1220/Z2706, CTS1266/Z2707, CTS1393/Z2708,
CTS1739/Z2748, CTS1748/Z2749, CTS1755^/Z2750^, CTS1805/Z2752,
CTS2375^/Z2754^, CTS2410/Z2755, CTS2644/Z2757, CTS2732^/Z2758^,
CTS2738^/Z2759^, CTS2970/Z2760, CTS3268/Z2762, CTS3474/V2712/Z2764,
CTS3506/Z2765, CTS3762/Z2766, CTS3843/Z2767, CTS4037^/V2902^/Z2768^,
CTS4130/V2932/Z2769, CTS4189/Z2770, CTS4295/Z2771, CTS4327/Z2772,
CTS4342/Z2773, CTS4344/Z2774, CTS4387, CTS4400/Z2775, CTS4508/Z2776,
CTS4532^/Z2777^, CTS4612^/Z2778^, CTS4656/Z2779, CTS4675^/Z2780^,
CTS4790/Z2781, CTS5167/Z2784, CTS5247/Z2785, CTS5408/Z2786,
CTS5513^/Z2787^, CTS5643^/Z2790^, CTS5705/Z2791, CTS5783/S63,
CTS6006/Z2795, CTS6022/Z2796, CTS6076^/Z2797^, CTS6109/Z2798,
CTS6140/Z2799, CTS6221^/Z2802^, CTS6395/Z2803, CTS6547/Z2804,
CTS6629/Z2805, CTS6765/Z2806, CTS6992, CTS7061/Z2807, CTS7121/Z2808,
CTS7267^/Z2809^, CTS7386/Z2810, CTS7477/Z2811, CTS7652/Z2812,
CTS7751^/Z2813^, CTS7949^/Z2814^, CTS8170/Z2816, CTS8224/Z2817,
CTS8394/Z2818, CTS8652/Z2820, CTS8708/Z2821, CTS8716^/Z2822^,
CTS9010/Z2824, CTS9258/Z2825, CTS9288/Z2826, CTS9368^/Z2827^,
CTS9405/Z2828, CTS9486/Z2829, CTS9487^/Z2830^, CTS9518/Z2831,
CTS9648^/Z2832^, CTS9749/Z2833, CTS9900^, CTS10062/Z2834,
CTS10140/Z2837, CTS10338, CTS10613/Z2840, CTS11036/Z2863, CTS11042/S66,
CTS11126^/Z2866^, CTS11166^/Z2867^, CTS11214/Z2868, CTS11503^/Z2869^,
CTS11526/Z2870, CTS11534/Z2871, CTS11552/Z2872, CTS11751/Z2874,
CTS11775/Z2875, CTS11783/Z2876, CTS11838/Z2879, CTS11950^/Z1880^,
CTS12008/Z2881, F3033.2/M1443.2/V4056.2/Z2838.2, FGC2422/Z2715,
FGC2425/Z2714, FGC2427^/Z2713^, FGC2430/Z2699, FGC2431/Z2710,
FGC2432/V1339/Z2712, FGC2435/Z2698, FGC2436/Y1879, FGC2439/Z2711,
FGC2440/V1427/Y3658, FGC2471/Y1882, FGC2483^/Y1933^,
L64, L75, L80, L81, L118, L121/S62, L123, L124/S64, L125/S65, L157.1,
L186, L187, L495/Z2788, L509/Z2864,
L750/YSC0000292/Z2725, L764/YSC0000271/Z2849, L840,
L841/YSC0000257/Z2751, L842/YSC0000264/Z2789, L843/YSC0000273/Z2878, L845/S110/YSC0000278, L848/YSC0000299/Z2877,
M450/S109, P30, P40, Page123/Z2763, S107,
S108, S111/Y1868, S22865/Z2845, V1423/Z2717,
V1771/Z2724, V2264^/Z2728^, Y1886^, YSC0000259/Z2761, YSC0000301/Z2882,
Z2718, Z2719, Z2721, Z2722, Z2723, Z2726, Z2727, Z2729, Z2730^, Z2731,
Z2733, Z2736, Z2737, Z2738, Z2740, Z2741^, Z2742^, Z2743, Z2744, Z2747,
Z2823, Z2841, Z2842, Z2843, Z2844, Z2846, Z2847, Z2848, Z2850, Z2851^,
Z2852^, Z2853^, Z2854^, Z2855^, Z2856, Z2857^, Z2861, Z2862, Z2885,
L234, L410, L1274, L1275
I1a2a1a1a1 L338/ S197
BY148, BY211, BY212, BY213, BY214, BY215, BY216, BY217, BY218, BY220,
BY222, BY223, BY224, BY225, BY226, BY228, BY230, BY232, BY233, BY234,
BY235, BY236, BY240, BY244, BY245, BY269, BY270, BY271, BY272, BY273,
BY274, BY275, BY276, BY277, BY278
L1450, L1451, L1452, Z2037, Z2038, Z2040, Z2041
S11542 . 1/V2110.1
I2a1 P37.2/ PF4004
Z109, Z112, Z124
CTS176/S2621, CTS1293/S2632, CTS1802/S2638, CTS5375/S2679,
CTS5985/S2687, CTS7218/S2702, CTS8239/S2715, CTS8486/S2722,
AMM079.1 /L1498.1/ Y4008.1
L37/PF6900/S153, L181, L368, P216/PF3855/S30, P217/PF3854/S23, P218/S32
L36/S152, L59, L622, P219/PF3859/S24, P220/S119, P221/PF3858/S120,
L387.2, L700, L705.1, L706.1
I2a2a1a FGC15073 /Y3721
I2b~ L415/S435, L416, L417/S332
FGC18085/Y5340, FGC18140/Y5336, M3934/S6610/PF3934, PF3889, PF3893,
PF3895, PF3896, PF3897, PF3898/S6659, PF3903/S3330, PF3911/S6728,
PF3922, PF3929/S6694, PF3931, S6601, S6631/SK1266, S11759, S12355,
BY19, BY20, BY21, BY22/FGC18100, BY24, BY25, BY26, BY27, BY29,
PF3904, PF3918, PF3924, PF3933
BY2776, BY2777, S9234, S10141, S11571, S16199, S16446, S17221,
S17911, S18042, S18299, S21750, S22170, S22470, S23078, S26491
BY2790, BY2791, BY2792
I2c2 BY133.1^/Y5127.1^ ,
PH3539, Y16659, Y16660, Y16668, Y16672, Y16673, Y16675, Y16677, Y16678,
Y16680, Y16682, Z26376, Z26380, Z26383, Z26384^, Z26386, Z26388,
Z26389, Z26390, Z26396^, Z26399, Z26401, Z26403^, Z26404
Identical SNPs that were discovered separately are listed
in alphabetical order, not necessarily in the order of discovery, and
separated by "/". Examples: M307.1/P203.1, M450/S109, M438/P215,
P41.2/M359.2, M436/P214/S33, P222/U250, L126/S165, L137/S166, L38/S154,
L39/S155, L40/S156, and L65/S159.
Page76: published accounts place this downstream from M170,
which appears to be incorrect. A haplogroup J man has tested Page76- as
expected, but three I1 males were Page76- as well. No known I male has
been tested for Page76. Therefore Page76 is possibly in I2, but
definitely not at the I node.
Page123: The precise location of Page123 is uncertain. It
is derived in four men with Haplogroup I1 SNPS and ancestral for one
man in Haplogroup J. It has not been tested in Haplogroup I2.
L69/S163 - Removed from I in 2011 and IJK in 2012,
Mutations previously on tree but found so far
only in one man or in closely related men :
confirmed results downstream from P30; considered a private snp, was
previously listed as I1e. Listed 26 Sep 2008.
L592: Out of
15 men tested, only three, all with the Straub surname, were derived.
This snp is downstream from Z140/Z141. Listed February 15, 2012.
Downstream from L64 et al. As of 16 April 2012, 219 men have tested
from L211, of which only two of the same surname have been confirmed as
confirmed tester in Underhill et al (197), downstream for L64 et al. As
of 17 April 2012, 969 men in the FTDNA I1 Project have tested and all
One confirmed result in Karafet et al (2008) downstream from L64 35 al.
As of 17 April 2012, 679 men in the FTDNA I1 Project have tested and
all are ancestral.
Downstream of M223, only one instance of M379+ is known, a Pakistani
male in Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution
Y-ChromosomeDistributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and
Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central
Asian Pastoralists by Sengupta et al. The Pakistani sample was derived
for M223. In the FTDNA I2b1/M223 Project, 237 men have tested for M379
and all were ancestral. Listed 28 June 2012.
is downstream of L160. Listed 5 August 2012.
approximately PF3827. Listed 18 December 2014, but PF3827 does not
exist on tree.
Y-DNA haplogroup I is a European
haplogroup, representing nearly one-fifth of the
population. It is almost non-existent outside of Europe, suggesting
that it arose in Europe.
Estimates of the age of haplogroup I suggest that it arose prior to the
last Glacial Maximum.
The two main subgroups of haplogroup I likely divided
approximately 28,000 years ago:
I1-M253 et al has highest frequency in Scandinavia,
Iceland, and northwest Europe. In Britain, haplogroup I1-M253 et al is
often used as a marker for "invaders," Viking or Anglo-Saxon. The
I1b-M227 subclade is concentrated in eastern Europe and the Balkans and
appears to have arisen in the last one thousand to five thousand years.
It has been reported in Germany, Czech Republic, Poland, Estonia,
Ukraine, Switzerland, Slovenia, Bosnia, Macedonia, Croatia, and Lebanon.
I2-M438 et al includes I2* which shows some membership from
Armenia, Georgia and Turkey; I2a1-P37.2, which is the most common form
in the Balkans and Sardinia. I2a1a-M26 is especially prevalent in
Sardinia. I2a2-M436 et al reaches its highest frequency along the
northwest coast of continental Europe. I2a2a-M223 et al occurs in
Britain and northwest continental Europe. I2a2a1-M284 occurs almost
exclusively in Britain, so it apparently originated there and has
probably been present for thousands of years.
References: Athey et al,
Placement of Haplogroup I-M223 in the Y-chromosome Phylogenetic Tree.
Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 1:54-55, 2005.
Battaglia et al,
of the Cultural Diffusion of Agriculture in Southeast Europe
European Journal of Human Genetics, 249. 2008.
Behar et al,
Structure of the Jewish People.
Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Bosch et al,
and Maternal Lineages in the Balkans Show a Homogeneous Landscape over
except for the Isolated Aromuns.
Annals of Human Genetics, 70:459-87, (2006).
Cinnioglu et al,
Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf)
Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
El Sibai et al,
Structure of the Y-Chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A
Contrast, Annals of Human Genetics, 73:568-81, 2009.
Francalacci et al,
DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome
Science: Vol. 341 no. 6145, pp. 565-569, DOI: 10.1126/science.1237947,
2 August 2013.
Ghiani, et al,
data for Y-chromosome haplotypes defined by AmpFlSTR YFiler PCR
amplification kit in
North Sardinia (Italy), Collegium Antropologicum, 33 (2):
Karafet et al,
Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human
Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2,
Rootsi et al,
of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric
Flow In Europe. American Journal of Human Genetics,
Rozen et al,
Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy
Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human
Genetics, 85:923-928, 2009.
Scheinfeldt et al,
NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia.
Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.
Sims et al,
Sub-Populations Within the Major European and African Derived
Haplogroups R1b3 and
E3a Are Differentiated by Previously Phylogenetically Undefined Y-SNPs.
Human Mutation: Mutation in Brief #940, Online, 2007.
Underhill et al,
New Phylogenetic Relationships for Y-chromosome Haplogroup I:
Reappraising its Phylogeography and Prehistory
Mellars P, Boyle K, Bar-Yosef O, Stringer C, Eds.
McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, UK, pp.
33-42, 2007b. (not available online) Rethinking the Human Evolution
Underhill et al,
The Phylogeography of Y Chromosome Binary Haplotypes and the Origins of
Populations. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 65:43-62, 2001.
Underhill et al,
Y Chromosome Sequence Variation and the History of Human Populations.
(pdf) Nature Genetics, 26:
Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC),
A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal Binary
Research, 12:339-348, 2002.
Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
Haplotypes (Modal Haplotypes for Y-Haplogroup I
Varieties), Ken Nordtvedt.
Ancestry of I1a DYS19=16
Cluster, Phil Goff.
Project Database, Timothy Weakley.
Family Tree DNA Projects:
Haplogroup I Y-DNA Project, Bob Waterous, Bernie Cullen, Paul
Y-DNA Haplogroup Project,
Phil Goff, Aaron J. Hill, Steve Transgrud, Yme Drost, Ken Nordtvedt,
William Hartley and Paul Stone.
and I1>Z63+ Project, Aaron Salles Torres,
Paul Stone, William Hartley, Wim Penninx.
- L22/S142 Project, Yme Drost, Albert Hulse.
(L205+) Project, Yme Drost.
I1-L1302 Project, Peter Sjφlund, Jakob Norstedt-Moberg
YDNA Project, William Hartley, Wim Penninx and Aleksandr
I2a Project, Bernie Cullen, Bill Morrow, Ken Nordtvedt,
L38+ Project, Timothy Weakley, Hans De Beule, Ken Nordtvedt.
L415 I2c L596 Haplogroup Project, Russ Livingstone, Bob May,
Peter Hrechdakian, Ken Nordtvedt, Hovann Simonian.
I1 Project, Aaron Salles Torres.
(I2a-Isles), Robert Gabel.
Y-Haplogroup Project, Aaron Salles Torres, Wayne Roberts, Ken
Nordtvedt, George Anthony, Scott Engel Stewart.
I1d1 (I-P109) yDNA Haplogroup Project, Rebekah Canada,
I1-L300 and Subclades yDNA Haplogroup Project, Artem Chuprov.
I-L1248 and Subclades yDNA Haplogroup Project, Jakob
Eastern Europe, Aleksandr Shtrunov.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2017: